During filming of the immense coronation scene in the Forbidden City, Queen Elizabeth II was in Beijing on a state visit. The production was given priority over her by the Chinese authorities and she was therefore unable to visit the Forbidden City.
This was the first western film made in and about the country to be produced with full Chinese government cooperation since 1949.
According to director of photography Vittorio Storaro in Visions of Light (1992), he used the phases of light to represent different stages of the emperor's life. Red, the color of the blood that starts the flashback and the opening doors it cuts to, represents birth. Orange is the warm color of his family and the forbidden city. Yellow is the color of the emperor's identity and the sun. Green, the color of the tutor's bike and hat, represents knowledge. The forbidden city only has the first three colors because it is a limited portion of reality.
1,100 schoolchildren were brought in to play Red Guards who composed the Cultural Revolution march (1967). Bernardo Bertolucci had problems instilling the right amount of anger in them, as none of them knew of the attitudes of the Cultural Revolution.
Most of the exterior and interior scenes of Pu-yi's mansion during his years as a puppet emperor for the Japanese (most notably the "Coronation Ball" scene) were filmed at the Imperial Palace in Changchun, where the real Puyi lived from 1934 to 1945. The mansion is now a museum.
The first feature film granted permission by the Chinese government to be filmed in the Forbidden City. A documentary produced and directed by Lucy Jarvis for NBC Films Ltd. in 1973 named "The Forbidden City" was the first western film permitted to film within the Forbidden City.
Puyi's younger brother, Pu Chieh, and Li Wenda, who helped Pu Yi write his autobiography, were brought in to act as advisors on the film.
Because no private automobiles were permitted, even Peter O'Toole was limited to the use of a bicycle for personal transportation.
Bernardo Bertolucci proposed the film to the Chinese government as one of two possible projects - the other was "La Condition Humaine" by André Malraux. The Chinese preferred this project, and made no restrictions on the content.
Bernardo Bertolucci talked at length with Sean Connery, regarding the role of Reginald Johnston. Connery ended up convincing the director not to cast him.
Jeremy Thomas managed to raise the $25 million budget for his independent production single-handedly.
Security was so tight around the shoot, that when, one day, Peter O'Toole forgot his pass, he was denied entrance to the set.
Two thousand soldiers had the front of their heads shaved in order to play Qing banner men. They were persuaded to do so by their officers who convinced them that it show friendship to the Italians and British. They were given a bonus of $3.50.
The production tracked down several people from Puyi's life, including the prison governor and his manservant, to unofficially advise the director.
The first film in Bernardo Bertolucci's "oriental trilogy", followed by The Sheltering Sky (1990) and Little Buddha (1993).
Hairdresser Giancarlo De Leonardis imported 2,200 pounds of human hair to make the elaborate wigs needed for the court. For the coronation scenes, his staff spent ten days training fifty Chinese to pin wigs and plaits onto two thousand extras in under two hours.
This is the first MPAA-rated PG-13 film to win the Academy Award for "Best Picture" (not counting subsequent films that have since been re-rated).
The real Reginald Johnston spoke fluent Chinese and was extremely well versed in the history of China, as well as its poetry. In the film, he and Pu Yi speak English to each other.
The 250-acre Forbidden City, built in the early 15th century with high walls up to 50 feet thick, provided an excellent soundproof filming environment - although the Chinese crews were unused to making films with live sound recording.
The China Film Co-Production Corporation provided their studios and unlimited extras in exchange for domestic distribution rights.
In reality when coming face to face with the Empress Cixi, Pu-Yi screamed in terror and later described seeing an eerie yellow curtain with an ugly thin face behind it, she was displeased and after having one of her servants offer him candy, had him taken away when he screamed even louder. She didn't die until the next day, and certainly not in front of the child.
The Buddhist lamas who appear in the film could not be touched by women, so extra male wardrobe helpers were hired to dress them.
An Italian chef was brought in to cook for the international cast. He brought with him 22,000 bottles of Italian mineral water, 450 pounds of Italian coffee, 250 gallons of olive oil and 4,500 pounds of pasta.
Ruocheng Ying, playing the Governor in the film, was at that time, the vice president of Department of Culture in the People's Republic of China.
Tony Chiu-Wai Leung turned down the lead role, because he felt his English wasn't strong enough.
Marlon Brando, Sean Connery and William Hurt were considered for the role of Reginald Johnson.
Included among the American Film Institute's 1998 list of the 400 movies nominated for the Top 100 Greatest American Movies.
Ying Ruocheng, who played the governor of the prison in the movie, is a Manchurian himself. His grandmother's family name is also Aisin-Gioro, she's a member of the royal family of Qing dynasty. Ying is actually a Manchurian name, simplified from Heseri, which also is an important family in Qing's history. At the time when the movie was made, Ying was the deputy minister of the culture ministry of Chinese government.
When Johnston is having lunch with the emperor, one of the eunuchs informs Johnston that he has been granted by the emperor the right to be carried in his own chair. According to Johnston's "Twilight in the Forbidden City," this right is actually quite distinctive. After the revolution that essentially removed the emperor from power, the north gate (or Shin-Wu Min) of the Forbidden City became the main gate through which courtiers and others expecting to have direct access to the royal household would pass. (Formerly they would pass through the south gate.) The western entrance (of the three entrances comprising the north gate) was where they entered. Most people who were to have any business in the royal areas of the city were expected to be on foot as they were entering sacred territory. However, some were granted the right to enter on horseback, and still others were bestowed the higher honor of being carried in a chair. According to Johnston, imperial tutors were always granted the higher right. He goes on to say: "Those who possessed either of these coveted rights were free to ride or to be carried in their chairs as far as the inner gates that led directly to the precincts of the throne-hall."
Yuan Jin: the real-life Chinese prison governor who was responsible for the real Puyi's rehabilitation, appears in the scene where Pu Yi receives his pardon. Yuan Jin calls Pu Yi's name ("Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi!") over the microphone. As Pu Yi steps forward, the pardon is read aloud by Ruocheng Ying, who plays Yuan Jin's role in the film. John Lone shakes hands with Yuan Jin before receiving the pardon.