She was considered an icon in the gay community in the 1950s and 1960s. Her death and the loss of that emotional icon in 1969 has been thought to be a contributing factor to the feeling of the passing of an era that helped spark the Stonewall Riots that began the modern gay rights advocacy movement.
Sister of Mary Jane Gumm and Virginia Gumm.
Mother of Liza Minnelli, Lorna Luft, and Joey Luft.
On 6/12/64 she married Mark Herron, although her divorce from Sidney Luft was not settled. They were married in Mandarin by a Buddhist monk, and the validity of this marriage is not clear.
There is surviving footage of Garland performing the lead role of Annie Oakley in Annie Get Your Gun (1950) before she was replaced by Betty Hutton, and this has been included in many documentaries. Undoubtedly, the best is That's Entertainment! III (1994), which for the first time assembled raw unedited footage for two musical numbers and presented them as they would have looked had the film been completed with Garland. Also surviving today are Garland's prerecordings of all songs for the production.
Originally screen-tested and signed to play the main supporting role of Helen Lawson, in Valley of the Dolls (1967). The studio even provided her with a pool table in her dressing room at her request. Eventually she backed out of the film and was ultimately replaced by Susan Hayward. She kept her costume when she walked off the film, and proceeded to wear the sequined pantsuit while performing in concerts around the world. The character of Neely O'Hara in the film was partially based on her own history (with pills, alcohol, and failed marriages). Sadly, it was Garland's real-life pill addiction that contributed to her leaving this film.
On 6/27/69 her funeral was held in Manhattan at the Frank E. Campbell funeral home at Madison Ave. and 81st St., and 22,000 people filed past her open coffin over a 24-hour period. Ex-husband Vincente Minnelli did not attend. James Mason delivered the eulogy. Her body had been stored in a temporary crypt for over one year. The reason for this is that no one had come forward to pay the expense of moving her to a permanent resting spot at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, NY. Liza Minnelli was under the impression that Judy's last husband, Mickey Deans, had made the necessary arrangements but Deans claimed to have no money. Liza then took on the task of raising the funds to have her properly buried. Death was caused by an "incautious self-overdosage of Seconal" which had raised the barbiturate level in her body beyond its tolerance.
She heard the same phrase in two movies: For Me and My Gal (1942) and Easter Parade (1948). In both, her love interest (played by Gene Kelly and Fred Astaire, respectively) says, "Why didn't you tell me I was in love with you?".
The day she died, there was a tornado in Kansas.
Liza Minnelli said that Judy planned on calling her autobiography "Ho-Hum".
Her portrayal of Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939) was the inspiration for the character of Mary Ann on Gilligan's Island (1964) (from Kansas, ponytails, lived on a farm with an aunt and uncle . . . ).
Liza Minnelli originally wanted Mickey Rooney to deliver Garland's eulogy, but she was afraid that he wouldn't be able to get through it. So James Mason did it instead.
According to Mel Tormé, she had a powerful gift of retention. She could view a piece of music once and have the entire thing memorized.
In 1997 she was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.
In 1998 her 1961 album "Judy at Carnegie Hall" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame.
First cousin three times removed of US President Ulysses S. Grant.
In September of 2002 a Los Angeles federal judge barred Sidney Luft from selling the replacement Juvenile Oscar she received for The Wizard of Oz (1939). Luft was also ordered to pay nearly $60,000 to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to end its second lawsuit against him for repeatedly trying to sell the statuette.
Favorite actor was Robert Donat (best known for his portrayal of the title character in the film Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939)).
Her soulful and iconic performance of "Over The Rainbow" from The Wizard of Oz (1939) claimed the #1 spot on June 22, 2004, in The American Film Institute's list of "The 100 Years of The Greatest Songs". The AFI board said, "'Over The Rainbow [. . . ]captured the nation's heart, echoed beyond the walls of a movie theater, and ultimately stands in our collective memory of the film itself. It has resonated across the century, enriching America's film heritage and captivating artists and audiences today".
She discouraged her children from entering show business, pointing out her financial and health problems resulting from the nature of the entertainment business. Nevertheless, two of her children, Liza Minnelli and Lorna Luft both became entertainers. Her son Joe lives in relative anonymity as a freelance photographer.
She experienced financial difficulties in the 1960s due to her overspending, periods of unemployment, owing of back taxes and embezzlement of funds by her business manager. The IRS garnished most of her concert revenues in the late 1960s. Her financial difficulties combined with her erratic behavior due to her drug dependencies helped break up her marriages and estrange her children from her a year before her death.
Was a member of The International Order of Job's Daughters.
She was voted the 23rd Greatest Movie Star of all time by Entertainment Weekly.
Groucho Marx said that her not winning an Oscar for A Star Is Born (1954) was "the biggest robbery since Brink's." Hedda Hopper later reported that her loss to Grace Kelly for The Country Girl (1954) was the result of the closest Oscar vote up to that time that didn't end in a tie, with just six votes separating the two. In any event, it was a heartbreak from which she never really recovered and which has remained a matter of some controversy ever since.
Always had crooked front teeth, for which an MGM dentist fitted her with removable caps to wear in her films, including The Wizard of Oz (1939).
Her daughter Liza Minnelli was once married to Jack Haley Jr., the son of her The Wizard of Oz (1939) co-star Jack Haley, who played the roles of The Tin Man, in fantasy, and Hickory, after Dorothy awoke from her dream.
Has a special variety of rose named after her. The petals are yellow (Garland adored yellow roses) and the tips are bright red. It took devoted fans almost nine years after her death to find a rose company in Britain interested in naming a rose officially for her, and the Judy Garland rose didn't appear in the US until 1991. Several JG rose bushes are planted outside of her burial crypt, and at the Judy Garland museum in Grand Rapids.
She was of English, along with some Scottish and Irish, descent.
In 1952 she received a Special Tony Award "for an important contribution to the revival of vaudeville through her recent stint at the Palace Theatre".
When she married Vincente Minnelli, Louis B. Mayer gave her away.
Had weight problems most of her life. Drastic weight fluctuations often affected continuity in her films and can be seen in Words and Music (1948) and Summer Stock (1950).
She was voted the 22nd Greatest Movie Star of all time by Premiere Magazine.
Was named #8 Actress on The AFI 50 Greatest Screen Legends
On 3/23/90 she was pictured on one of four 25¢ US commemorative postage stamps honoring classic films released in 1939. The stamp shows Judy Garland as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939), along with Toto (portrayed by Terry). The other films honored were Beau Geste (1939), Stagecoach (1939), and Gone with the Wind (1939).
Is portrayed by Judy Davis and Tammy Blanchard in Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows (2001), by Elizabeth Karsell in James Dean (2001) and by Andrea McArdle in Rainbow (1978).
The song "Quiet Please, There's A Lady On Stage" from the stage musical "The Boy From Oz" was written by Peter Allen (Liza Minnelli's former husband) as a tribute to her.
Was pregnant with her first child Liza Minnelli while filming her minor role in Till the Clouds Roll By (1946). In order to hide her pregnant stomach she was hidden behind stacks of dishes while singing "Look For The Silver Lining". She had also recorded a song "Do You Love Me", which was cut before release. Her scenes were directed by her then husband Vincente Minnelli.
After serving as the music director on her short-lived CBS series, Mel Tormé wrote a vicious tell-all book about his talented but challenging former boss. So frustrated from the experience, his words in "The Other Side of The Rainbow: With Judy Garland on the Dawn Patrol" portrayed Garland as hopelessly drug-addicted, unprofessional and a horror to work with.
In 2006 her per performance as Vicki Lester in A Star Is Born (1954) was ranked #72 on Premiere Magazine's 100 Greatest Performances of All Time.
Her performance as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939) is ranked #17 on Premiere Magazine's 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.
During her first marriage to David Rose, Judy was forced to undergo an abortion at the insistence of MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer who feared that pregnancy would hurt her good-girl image. The event left her traumatized for the rest of her life.
On 6/10/06 she was pictured on a 39¢ US commemorative postage stamp in the Legends of Hollywood series.
The godparents of her daughter Liza Minnelli were Ira Gershwin and Kay Thompson
Grandmother of Vanessa and Jesse Richards, children of singer Lorna Luft.
Godfather of her daughter Lorna Luft was Frank Sinatra
Daughter of Francis (March 20, 1886-November 17, 1935), born in Tennessee, and Ethel (Milne) Gumm (November 17, 1893-January 5, 1953), born in Michigan. Both died in California.
Born in Grand Rapids, MN, and later lived in Lancaster, CA. John Wayne, then attending college at USC, also lived in Lancaster and was a neighbor of hers.
Gave birth to all three of her children via Caesarean section. She also suffered from postpartum depression after the birth of her daughters Liza Minnelli and Lorna Luft.
The famous theme song David Raksin wrote for Laura (1944) was originally entitled "Judy" in honor of her.
Had intense fears of flying, horses, and guns.
Was considered for the role of Careen O'Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939), but it was eventually given to Ann Rutherford, so Judy immediately began working on The Wizard of Oz (1939), a film for which was considered as early as 1937.
Johnnie Ray was best man at her wedding to fifth husband Mickey Deans.
Did not attend the 1955 Academy Awards, where she was nominated as Best Actress for her portrayal of Vicki Lester in A Star Is Born (1954), because she was in hospital after giving birth to her third child and only son Joey Luft.
She only performed "Over The Rainbow" three times during her many television appearances, which spanned 14 years. She performed it on her first TV Special, Ford Star Jubilee (1955) episode, "The Judy Garland Special" in 1955, sang it to her children on The Christmas Edition of her weekly The Judy Garland Show (1963), and on The Mike Douglas Show: Episode #7.240 (1968).
Betty Asher, who worked on the MGM lots, served as her maid of honor during her wedding to Vincente Minnelli in 1945.
Offered the lead role in The Three Faces of Eve (1957), but turned down the role because the storyline bore too many resemblances to her own personal life. The role was then given to Joanne Woodward who went on to win the Best Actress Oscar for her performance.
Was Matron of Honor at the wedding of actor Don DeFore and Marion Holmes DeFore on February 14, 1942.
The only witnesses present at her Las Vegas wedding to David Rose in 1941 were her mother and stepfather.
In a performance of "Come Rain Or Come Shine" on her 1963-1964 variety show on CBS TV, though forgetting some of the words and seemingly "out of sync" with the orchestra she still managed to give a quite powerful and memorable performance.
Performed two songs in films that won the Academy Award for Best Original Song: "Over the Rainbow" from The Wizard of Oz (1939) and "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe" from The Harvey Girls (1946). Performed four more songs that were nominated: "Our Love Affair" from Strike Up the Band (1940), "How About You?" from Babes on Broadway (1941), "The Trolley Song" from Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), and "The Man That Got Away" from A Star Is Born (1954). Performed others that became standards, including "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" from Meet Me in St. Louis (1944).
She performed with her sisters at the 1933-34 World's Fair in Chicago on the infamous midway (where Sally Rand was the main attraction), more specifically in the Old Mexico Club, where they sold out every night. During their third week at the club it unexpectedly closed due to an expired liquor license. Judy served as the grand marshal in a parade for the Fair's "Children's Day" in early 1934. It was during their last day in Chicago that Frances Gumm changed her name to Judy Garland during a performance at the Oriental Theater, partly at the advice of George Jessel, who was emceeing.
She headlined Ford Star Jubilee: The Judy Garland Special (1955)), CBS' first special. She performed many of her standards, including "Get Happy", "Carolina in the Morning" and "The Trolley Song". She and guest David Wayne as tramps performed "A Couple of Swells" from Easter Parade (1948), Wayne doing Fred Astaire's part. After that number, she--still in tramp make-up--closed the show with "Over The Rainbow".
Mentioned in the song "Happy Phantom" by Tori Amos, "Dance in the Dark" by Lady Gaga, and "A Room at the Heartbreak Hotel" by U2.
Initially refused to appear in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944) as she had recently begun to portray characters her own age, such as in Presenting Lily Mars (1943), and was tired of playing virginal teenage characters. She later relented after much persuasion and not only did she meet her future husband Vincente Minnelli on set but her performance in the film was also one of her most famous during her MGM years.
The first film she made after marrying Vincente Minnelli was The Harvey Girls (1946).
Did not get on with Lucille Bremer, who played her sister in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944). She thought that Bremer couldn't act and repeatedly tried to have her fired from the film, but to no avail.
Was replaced by Ginger Rogers in the film The Barkleys of Broadway (1949) after being suspended from MGM for her tardiness.
Replaced June Allyson in Royal Wedding (1951) after she became pregnant, but her failure to report to the set led to her being replaced by Jane Powell.
A close friend was Katharine Hepburn, with whom she would regularly stay during her most serious bouts of depression in order to recover.
Despite numerous concert and television appearances in the 1960s, she remained constantly in debt. This was due in part to then-manager David Begelman embezzling hundreds of thousands of dollars from his clients, Garland chief among them. Begelman even went so far as to claim a Cadillac, presented to Garland for an appearance on The Jack Paar Program (1962), as his own.
Adding to her appeal within the gay community, Garland always acknowledged her gay fan base at a time when homosexuality was seldom even discussed. Late in her career and in dire need of money, she even accepted work singing in a New York City gay bar.
Was in consideration for the role of Sophie MacDonald in The Razor's Edge (1946) but Anne Baxter, who went on to win a Best Supporting Actress Oscar for her performance, was cast instead.
One of the few actresses to have danced with both Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly in the movies, other actresses that have also done this includes Rita Hayworth, Cyd Charisse, Vera-Ellen, Debbie Reynolds, and Leslie Caron.
Returned to work 11 months after giving birth to daughter Lorna Luft in order to film A Star Is Born (1954).
Returned to work nine months after giving birth to her daughter Liza Minnelli in order to film The Pirate (1948).
Despite popular belief that Shirley Temple was the first choice for the role of Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939), Garland was cast in the role even before pre-production had begun. As early as February 1938 both "Variety" and columnist Louella Parsons announced that she was cast in the role of Dorothy.
According to her biography on the A&E channel, as a young adult in her early acting career producers had her going to six different doctors for prescription drugs, without any one doctor knowing about the other five. It was this process that led to her addiction.
She was a very active member of the Hollywood Democratic Committee and donated her time and money to many liberal causes (such as the Civil Rights Movement) and political candidates (including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry Wallace, Adlai Stevenson, John F. Kennedy, and Robert F. Kennedy) for most of her adult life.
In an eerie twist of fate, she was born in June of 1922 (6/22) and died on June 22 (6/22).
Married Sidney Luft at Paicines Ranch near Hollister, CA, on June 8, 1952.
Attendees at Garland's funeral and memorial service on June 27, 1969 at the Frank E. Campbell Chapel included her children Liza Minnelli, Lorna Luft, and Joey Luft, ex husbands Sidney Luft and Mickey Deans (Vincente Minnelli was in London shooting On a Clear Day You Can See Forever (1970)), Kay Thompson, Roger Edens, Johnny Mercer, Harold Arlen, Arthur Freed, Garland's sister Virginia Gumm, Mickey Rooney, Frank Sinatra, Lena Horne, Dean Martin, Ray Bolger, Lauren Bacall, Katharine Hepburn, Bette Davis, Peggy Lee, Lana Turner, Gene Kelly, Ann Sothern, June Allyson, Fred Astaire, Burt Lancaster, Betty Comden and Adolph Green Otto Preminger, John Kander and Fred Ebb, Sammy Davis Jr., Jack Benny, Ethel Merman, Freddie Bartholomew, Myrna Loy, Ann Rutherford, Martha Raye and Paula Wayne. James Mason delivered the eulogy and more than 20,000 spectators filed by Garland's casket.
According to her friend June Allyson in her biography, Garland wished a white casket for her funeral and that everything else be in yellow and white. However, because there was no coffin in white, the funeral home painted one in this color.
Won five Grammys over her career.
In January 2017, her body was removed from the mausoleum at Ferncliff Cemetery in New York and sent to Los Angeles where she was place at Hollywood Forever Cemetery in a private family crypt. The decision to move Garland came from her children since there was no room in Garlands current burial spot for her children to join her. Garlands children purchased a large family crypt to ensure they would be laid to rest with their mother. Coincidently, Garland was laid to rest in the same cemetery as her childhood friends and costar Mickey Rooney.
Only appeared in two Best Picture Oscar nominated films: The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Judgment at Nuremberg (1961).
Judy Sherwood, Virginia Gumm's daughter and Garland's eponymous niece, also died at age 47.
On August 19, 2018, she was honored with a day of her film work during the TCM Summer Under The Stars.
She was a liberal Democrat.
Judy Garland filed for divorce from Dave Rose on Friday 5 May 1944 on the grounds of incompatibility. They had eloped three years before and had married in Las Vegas, Nevada. (Associated Press, no headline, The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Saturday 6 May 1944, Volume 50, page 4.).
She was portrayed by Renée Zellweger in "Judy" (2019).
Was good friends with Marilyn Monroe.
She has appeared in five films that have been selected for the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant: Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938), The Wizard of Oz (1939), Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), A Star Is Born (1954) and Judgment at Nuremberg (1961).