Ranked #10 in Empire (UK) magazine's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. [October 1997]
He was the first movie star to enter the service for World War II, joining a year before Pearl Harbor was bombed. He was initially refused entry into the Air Force because he weighed 5 pounds less than the required 148 pounds, but he talked the recruitment officer into ignoring the test. He eventually became a Colonel (active duty) and then Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, and earned the Air Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Croix de Guerre and 7 battle stars. In 1959, he served in the Air Force Reserve, before retiring as a brigadier general. (Walter Matthau was a sergeant in his unit).
The James Stewart Museum was dedicated in Indiana, Pennsylvania on Saturday, May 20, 1995.
Received his Bachelor of Science degree in architecture from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey (1932).
When Stewart won the Best Actor Oscar in 1940, he sent it to his father in Indiana, Pennsylvania, who set it in his hardware shop. The trophy remained there for 25 years.
The word "Philadelphia" on the Oscar that Jimmy received in 1941 for The Philadelphia Story (1940) is misspelled. The Oscar was kept in the window of Jimmy's father's hardware store located on Philadelphia Street in Indiana, Pennsylvania.
His remains are interred at Forest Lawn Cemetary, Glendale, California, in the Wee Kirk O'the Heathers Churchyard, on the left side, up the huge slope, to the left of the Taylor Monument, in space 2, lot 8.
James was named Best Classic Actor of the 20th Century in an Entertainment Weekly on-line poll. [September 1999]
He held the highest active military rank of any actor in history. During World War II, he served in the U.S. Army Air Forces, and he rose to the rank of colonel. After the war, he continued serving in the U.S. Air Force Reserve, ultimately becoming a brigadier general. Ed McMahon was also commissioned as a brigadier general in the California Air National Guard in 1966, and he continued to serve after he began his acting career. Two former actors outranked him: John Ford was an actor before becoming a director, and he became rear admiral in the U.S. Naval Reserve. President Ronald Reagan became the U.S. Commander-in-Chief, but he had made his last theatrical TV appearance in 1965.
Never took an acting lesson, and felt that people could learn more when actually working rather than studying the craft.
When he left to serve in World War II, his father gave him a letter that he kept in his pocket every day until the war ended.
Stewart played the accordion.
Often incorrectly noted as having achieved the highest rank in Boy Scouting, Eagle Scout, while in his youth in Indiana, Pennsylvania; he was a scout for four years, attaining Second Class. He appeared in a series of award-winning commercials promoting the Boy Scouts, and served as a volunteer with the Orange County and Los Angeles Area Councils. He was awarded the Silver Beaver, the highest adult award.
Was a regular on the "Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts". He was even a guest of honor in 1978.
Introduced the Cole Porter standard "Easy to Love" in Born to Dance (1936). His undubbed, reedy tenor voice was actually not so bad. He would later say of the experience, "the song had become such a big hit that they felt even my singing couldn't ruin it." He would later sing a few bars of "Over the Rainbow" as part of his Oscar-winning performance in The Philadelphia Story (1940).
Recipient of Kennedy Center Honors in 1983.
Stewart starred in the NBC Radio series "The Six Shooter" in 1953-54.
Many of his works were donated to Brigham Young University in 1983, including his personal copy of It's a Wonderful Life (1946).
Hit #133 on the Billboard Singles Charts with "The Legend of Shenandoah" (Decca 31795), a narration backed up with the Charles "Bud" Dant Orchestra (1965).
Most of his ancestry was Scots-Irish (Northern Irish) and Scottish, with more distant English and Irish roots. Some of his ancestors were from County Antrim.
Inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers of the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum (1972).
While Stewart served as an officer and a pilot in the U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, one of the sergeants in his unit was Walter Matthau.
He once said the public was his biggest critic, and that if they did not like his performance, then neither did he.
His two natural children, twin daughters Judy Stewart and Kelly Stewart, were born on Monday, May 7, 1951. His wife, Gloria Stewart (the former Gloria Hatrick McLean), a former model from Larchmont, New York, also brought two sons to the marriage: Ronald and Michael (aged 5 and 2 at the time of the wedding in 1949), whom he adopted. Ronald later died on active service, as a Marine officer on Sunday, June 8, 1969 in Vietnam.
Over 3,000 people, mostly Hollywood celebrities, attended his funeral to pay their respects.
President Harry S. Truman was an admirer of Stewart's work, and even commented that if he had a son, he would have wanted him to be "just like Jimmy Stewart".
Despite having been a decorated war hero in World War II, he declined to talk about this, in part because of the traumatic experiences he had in killing others and watching friends die. The roles he chose after returning from the war were generally darker, some say because he was hardened by combat.
A true "regular guy", he genuinely disliked the glamour often basked in by the Hollywood stars, avoiding expensive clothes and fancy cars.
He remained faithful to his wife Gloria Stewart throughout their marriage. While this may seem ordinary, it was rare in Hollywood for male stars to stay devoted to their wives, with many of his colleagues, such as Gary Cooper, John Wayne, and his friend Henry Fonda, having had a series of infidelities.
His mother's maiden name was Jackson. Her father, Colonel Samuel Jackson, served in the War Between the States.
One of the first (if not the first) stars to receive a percentage of the gross of his movies.
His best friend was probably Henry Fonda, whom he met while at acting camp. Early on they got into a fistfight over politics (Stewart was a very conservative Republican, Fonda a very liberal Democrat) that was won by Fonda, but they apparently never discussed politics again. When Fonda moved to Hollywood he lived with Stewart and the two gained a reputation as among Hollywood's biggest playboys. However, after each married and settled down, their children noted that their favorite activity when not working seemed to be silently painting model airplanes together.
His hair began receding during World War II. By the early 1950s, he was wearing a toupee for all his movie roles, though he often went without it in public. His baldness was made less obvious by his wearing a gray toupee for many of his movie roles.
He was voted the 9th Greatest Movie Star of all time by Premiere magazine.
Ranked #3 on The 50 Greatest Screen Legends Actor list by the American Film Institute.
According to the Monday, March 31, 1941 issue of Time magazine, Stewart was drafted into the Army. Prior to induction, he flew in a private plane to California and the next day braved a large crowd of female admirers to board a Los Angeles trolley car that took him and other draftees off to be inducted for a year hitch in the Army. Time magazine said that Stewart's salary would drop to $21 a month from $6,000.
Was very good friends with Ronald Reagan, Henry Fonda, John Wayne and Gary Cooper.
Accepted his friend Gary Cooper's honorary Oscar for Lifetime Achievement in 1961, because Cooper was dying of cancer.
His death was on Wednesday, July 2, 1997, and this was just one day after the death of Robert Mitchum, on Tuesday, July 1, 1997.
While always gracious with his fans, he was always very protective of his privacy. A notable example of this occurred when a nervy family of tourists set up a picnic on his front lawn. Stewart came out of his house and, without uttering a word, turned on the sprinklers.
Hosted the Academy Awards in 1946 (alongside Bob Hope), 1958 (alongside David Niven, Jack Lemmon, Rosalind Russell, Bob Hope and "Donald Duck").
Upon accepting his Honorary Oscar in 1985, he stated, "This was the greatest award I received, to know that, after all these years, I haven't been forgotten." The audience gave him a ten-minute standing ovation, making the show run long. Steven Spielberg, who was in attendance, said that he was humbled to even be in the same room as Jimmy, because he respected him so much.
While filming The Big Sleep (1978) in August 1977, Stewart appeared to be much older than his actual age of 69 at the time as the rich, wheelchair-bound General Sternwood. The fact is that he had a hearing impairment, and he was having memory problems, which caused him to keep flubbing his lines. It is believed that these health problems brought about his retirement from films shortly afterwards, although he was also concerned with the violence and explicit sexual content of modern films, and he saw no future for himself in the movie business.
Upon his death on July 2, 1997, a small group of fans and admirers placed a few items on his Hollywood star, not the least of which was a rather tall (although not six feet tall) plush rabbit wearing overalls. (It was reportedly stolen later in the night.).
Awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America's highest civilian award, by his friend President Ronald Reagan at the White House in 1985.
Stewart very much wanted the role of Roger Thornhill in North by Northwest (1959) and he was the original choice for it, but after the financial failure of Vertigo (1958), director Alfred Hitchcock blamed the film's box office woes on Stewart, claiming Stewart looked too old to still attract audiences and cast Cary Grant instead, even though Grant was actually four years older than Stewart. Previously one of the director's favorite collaborators, Stewart and Alfred Hitchcock never worked together again.
Of all the films that he had done It's a Wonderful Life (1946) was his favorite one.
Replaced Cary Grant as Rupert Cadell in Rope (1948). Ironically, Grant replaced him as Roger Thornhill in North by Northwest (1959).
His performance as George Bailey in It's a Wonderful Life (1946) is ranked #8 on Premiere magazine's 100 Greatest Performances of All Time (2006).
His performance as James "Scottie" Ferguson in Vertigo (1958) is ranked #30 on Premiere magazine's 100 Greatest Performances of All Time (2006).
His jazz and blues piano-playing skills were showcased in Anatomy of a Murder (1959).
After making The Magic of Lassie (1978), Stewart went into semi-retirement from acting. During the next few years he suffered from many health problems including heart disease, skin cancer, deafness, and senility.
His performance as George Bailey in It's a Wonderful Life (1946) is ranked #60 on Premiere magazine's 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.
Three of his films are on the American Film Institute's 100 Most Inspiring Movies of All Time, two of which are in the top five. These are: The Spirit of St. Louis (1957) at #69, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939) at #5, and It's a Wonderful Life (1946) at #1.
According to the curator of the James Stewart Museum, he was exactly 6' 3" tall. His military physical would have indicated that he was 6' 3", since he was 138 lb., five pounds under the 143 required for his enlistment eligibility. The weight / height requirement for the U.S. Army Air Forces before October 1999 was a 143 pound minimum for a man of 6' 3" in height. By the late 1950s, he reported that his weight was up to 160 pounds.
Medals awarded: the Distinguished Service Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross with Oak Leaf cluster, Air Medal with three Oak Leaf clusters, Army Commendation Medal, American Defense Service Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with three Service Stars, the World War II Victory Medal, Armed Forces Reserve Medal, the French Croix de Guerre with Palm, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Stewart never recovered from his wife's death on Wednesday, February 16, 1994, and he vowed to make no further public appearances after her funeral service. Thereafter, he spent most of his time in his bedroom, coming out only at the insistence of his housekeeper for his meals. Newspaper reports suggested that Stewart had Alzheimer's disease. Over the Christmas holiday season in 1995, he failed to negotiate a rise leading to a dining area and he fell, cracking his head on the bill of a wooden duck that his daughter Judy had given him some years previously. In December 1996, when he was due to have his battery changed in his pacemaker, he told his children that he would rather not have that done. He wanted to let things take their natural course. However, on Friday, January 31, 1997, Stewart tripped over a potted plant in his bedroom, and he cut open his forehead. He was taken to St John's Hospital, in Santa Monica, California, where he was given twelve stitches. A few weeks later, he was hospitalized for a blood clot and an irregular heartbeat. He had a blood clot in his right knee, and the swelling soon spread through his entire leg. At 11:05 a.m. on Wednesday, July 2, 1997, James Stewart died of cardiac arrest at age eighty-nine.
Stewart nearly declined to support his friend Ronald Reagan's campaign for the governorship of California in 1966, since Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962. In 1976, Stewart campaigned extensively in California for Reagan in the presidential primaries, especially visiting shopping malls and airports.
Campaigned for Richard Nixon in the 1968 and 1972 Presidential elections.
Fell out with Anthony Mann during the shooting of Night Passage (1957), resulting in Mann being replaced (by James Neilson). A year later Mann shot Man of the West (1958), regarded by many as his greatest western of all and totally suited to Stewart, but with Gary Cooper in the lead role.
His mother, Bessie Stewart, died on Sunday, August 2, 1953, a week after suffering a severe heart attack at age seventy-eight.
His father, Alexander Stewart, died of stomach cancer on Thursday, December 28th, 1961, at age eighty-nine.
During the 1980s, he was one of the most prominent critics of the colorization of old movies, even testifying before a Congressional committee about what he called the "denaturing" of It's a Wonderful Life (1946). "If these color-happy folks are so concerned about the audience," he said, "let them put their millions of dollars into new films, or let them remake old stories if they see fit, but let our great film artists and films live in peace. I urge everyone in the creative community to join in our efforts to discourage this terrible process.".
Had a dislike of Hollywood war movies, explaining that they were hardly ever accurate. During his career, he only starred in two war films: Strategic Air Command (1955) and The Mountain Road (1960).
In 1980, he was hospitalized for five days with an irregular heartbeat. Three years later, the condition resurfaced and doctors at St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica installed a pacemaker.
Stewart agreed to play a cameo role in The Shootist (1976) only after John Wayne specifically requested him. His short time on the film proved to be trying. The bad acoustics of the huge, hollow sound stages worsened his hearing difficulties, and he stayed by himself most of the time. He and Wayne muffed their lines so often in the main scene between them that director Don Siegel accused them of not trying hard enough. Wayne's reply was a variation on an old line by John Ford, advising the director that "if you'd like the scene done better, you'd better get a couple of better actors." Later on, the star told friends that Stewart had known his lines, but hadn't been able to hear his cues, and that in turn had caused his own fumbling.
Stewart and Richard Widmark both wore toupees and had hearing problems. On the set of Two Rode Together (1961) director John Ford became frustrated with the two stars being unable to hear his instructions and exclaimed, "Fifty years in this goddamn business, and what do I end up doing? Directing two deaf hairpieces!"
Stewart underwent surgery for skin cancer in 1983.
He considered himself to be miscast in Vertigo (1958) and Bell Book and Candle (1958), and was widely criticized for being too old to play both roles.
Deliberately exaggerated his accent in films after he returned from World War II, because several directors told him he needed to create a persona in order to sell his films to the public, particularly with the rising popularity of television.
He never had any cosmetic surgery, unlike his friends Gary Cooper, Henry Fonda and John Wayne.
In association with politicians and celebrities that included President Ronald Reagan, Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren Burger, California Governor George Deukmejian, Bob Hope and Charlton Heston, Stewart worked from 1987 to 1993 on projects that enhanced the public appreciation and understanding of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Stewart was sometimes amused when critics would always compare him with Henry Fonda, in particular his one marriage versus Fonda's five marriages. Stewart was dismayed that people forgot that he had been romantically linked with numerous actresses before finally marrying at age 41.
Stewart wanted to make Night Passage (1957) because he believed it would give him a chance to show off his accordion playing. However, all of his playing in the film was re-recorded by a professional accordion player.
He wore the same hat in all of his westerns. John Ford complained on the set of Two Rode Together (1961): "Great, now I have actors with hat approval!".
He actively supported the presidential campaign of Senator Barry Goldwater in 1964, after Goldwater had voted against the Civil Rights Act.
His favorite movies were Westerns, he said, "because they're told against the background of a very dramatic period in our history" and "give people a feeling of hope, an affirmative statement of living".
Pictured on a 41¢ USA commemorative postage stamp in the Legends of Hollywood series, issued on Friday, August 17, 2007.
Originally intended to make On Golden Pond (1981), but Jane Fonda bought the rights before he could.
He was a frequent guest at the White House throughout the 1980s, addressing the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan on Tuesday, January 20, 1981.
Stewart was age 49 when portrayed a 25-year-old Charles Lindbergh in The Spirit of St. Louis (1957). Stewart had actively sought the role even though the producers thought that he was far too old. He did this simply because he admired Lindbergh so much.
In 1999, the American Film Institute named him the third greatest male star of all time.
Profiled in "Back in the Saddle: Essays on Western Film and Television Actors", Gary Yoggy, ed. (McFarland, 1998).
Scaled back playing the romantic lead after he turned 50.
A proposal was submitted to award Stewart the Congressional Gold Medal in recognition of his services to the nation. [March 2008]
Joined the Army eight months before Pearl Harbor. Served overseas for 21 months, where, as a pilot with the 445th Bomb Group, 703rd squadron, he flew 20 combat missions.
After Boris Yeltsin seized power in Russia in December 1991, Stewart was involved in arranging for It's a Wonderful Life (1946) to be screened on Russian television.
Made his London stage debut with the play "Harvey" (1975).
Following the release of Winchester '73 (1950), he appeared on the list of Top 10 Stars at the US box office for the first time, a position he retained until the end of the decade.
Wearing his Army Air Forces uniform, he presented Gary Cooper with his Best Actor Oscar for Sergeant York (1941).
Along with Robert De Niro and Harrison Ford, Stewart has 8 films in the Imdb's Top 250 movie list.
African-American actor Woody Strode, (Stewart's co-star in Two Rode Together (1961) and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962)) praised Stewart as "one of the nicest men you'll ever meet anywhere in the world".
His daughter Kelly and her husband teach at the University of California at Davis.
His daughter Kelly married the Cambridge University professor Alexander "Sandy" Harcourt in London in 1977.
His daughter Kelly graduated from Stanford University, and she earned her Ph.D. from Cambridge University.
His daughter Judy married the banker Steven Merrill in 1979, but they later divorced.
Had two grandsons, John (b. August 10, 1982) and David Merrill (b. November 29, 1983).
As of the fifth edition of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die (edited by Steven Jay Schneider), Stewart is runner-up as the most represented leading actor, by 13 films, behind Robert De Niro. Included are the Stewart films Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), Destry Rides Again (1939), The Mortal Storm (1940), The Philadelphia Story (1940), It's a Wonderful Life (1946), Rope (1948), Winchester '73 (1950), The Naked Spur (1953), Rear Window (1954), The Man from Laramie (1955), Vertigo (1958), Anatomy of a Murder (1959) and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962).
Gary Cooper considered Stewart to be his closest friend.
Some sources state that Stewart was considered to play James Bond in Dr. No (1962). However, it was in fact Stewart Granger, whose real name was James Stewart, who was considered - but ultimately rejected as being too old.
Allegedly hated the nickname "Jimmy".
Burt Reynolds was neighbours of him, and a life-long devoted fan. In an interview for the TC Palm in 2010, Reynolds said how much he admired Stewart and that he was always gracious and kind towards him and others. "So modest, so wonderful", Reynolds said. "He was more than an actor. He was every man you wish you could be", Reynolds said.
Principal speaker at Veterans Rights ceremony - Arlington, Virginia. [November 1956]
He became good friends with the actress Maureen O'Hara during the filming of Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation (1962).
Daniel Day-Lewis and Gary Oldman, two English actors each with very different styles and personas from Stewart, have both cited him as a major influence.
At the 1972 Republican National Convention he introduced the honored guest speaker Pat Nixon; which is historically significant considering she was the first ever Republican first lady to give a live speech at any of the RNC's at that time.
Was a Boy Scout.
He was awarded a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1708 Vine Street in Hollywood, California on February 8, 1960.
He appeared in two Best Picture Academy Award winners: You Can't Take It with You (1938) and The Greatest Show on Earth (1952).
The citation for one of two Distinguished Service Cross's awarded to Lt. Col. Jimmy Stewart: The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 2, 1926, takes pleasure in presenting a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Distinguished Flying Cross to Lieutenant Colonel (Air Corps) James M. "Jimmy" Stewart (ASN: 0-433210), United States Army Air Forces, for extraordinary achievement, while serving as Air Commander of heavy bombardment formations on many missions to enemy occupied territory during World War II. Lieutenant Colonel Stewart's skillful leadership and sound judgment in guiding his formations to heavily defended targets requiring deep penetrations have been major factors in the successful destructions of these vital enemy installations. The outstanding tactical ability displayed by Lieutenant Colonel Stewart reflects the highest credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of the United States.
A rumor circulated for years among Goof Troop (1992) fans that Stewart's last acting role was as the voice of Red Crocker in Goof Troop: E=MC Goof (1992). The character was actually voiced by Frank Welker, impersonating Stewart.
He appeared in four films directed by Alfred Hitchcock: Rope (1948), Rear Window (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) and Vertigo (1958).
Turned down all World War II films, saying they were nothing like the actual war.
Was friends with Scottish physicist Robert Watson-Watt, who won the Nobel Prize for his contributions to the invention of radar. He would later narrate an Air Force training film on the use of radar in ballistic early-warning systems.
A regular contributor to the political campaigns of Senator Jesse Helms.
He was thirty-two years old when he won the Best Actor Academy Award for The Philadelphia Story (1940), making him the youngest winner at the time. He held the title for fourteen years until Marlon Brando became the youngest winner for On the Waterfront (1954).
While a student at Princeton, Stewart acted in stage productions with the Triangle Club, many of them produced by future Hollywood writer and director Joshua Logan. In his senior year in 1931, he acted in a show called "The Spanish Blades," which happened to be seen by a talent scout for MGM named William Grady Jr.. Years later, Grady wrote that the cast had been "a motley group, and, like all amateurs, accentuated their... appearance with excessive mugging and gestures.... All but the skinny guy at the end. He was six foot four, towered over all the others, and looked uncomfortable as hell. While the others hammed it up, the thin one played it straight and was a standout." Grady introduced himself backstage, then wrote in his notebook that the boy had "an ingratiating personality" but was a type in which the studio would have "no particular interest." Eighteen years later, Grady would serve as best man at Stewart's wedding.
In his 2017 dual biography of Henry Fonda and James Stewart, Hank & Jim, film historian Scott Eyman writes that an actor complained to director John Ford that although he had worked with Stewart several times, he still didn't know the man. Ford replied: "You don't get to know Jimmy Stewart. Jimmy Stewart gets to know you".
Although he played Josephine Hull's brother in Harvey (1950), he was 31 years her junior in real life.
Starred in seven Oscar Best Picture nominees: You Can't Take It with You (1938), Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), The Philadelphia Story (1940), It's a Wonderful Life (1946), The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), Anatomy of a Murder (1959) and How the West Was Won (1962). You Can't Take It with You and The Greatest Show on Earth both won.
James Stewart's Best Actor Oscar nomination for Harvey (1950) is the only time he was nominated for his performance in a film which was not nominated for Best Picture.
It was reported early in 2011 that the Jimmy Stewart Museum was facing a financial crisis.
Having graduated in architecture he announced to his parents that he was giving up on being an architect and was going to Broadway where he had a small part in a play. His parents gave him their blessing.
In High school was in the Triangle Club which was a drama club.
His father was a volunteer fireman.
The army said that he was too valuable to be put on active service and wanted him to do propaganda films but he wanted none of it wanting to be on the front line.
M.G.M. actively tried to stop him from signing up for war service.
In 1960, MGM toyed with the idea of doing an all-male remake of The Women (1939) which would've been entitled "Gentlemen's Club." Like the female version, this would have involved an all masculine cast and the plot would have involved a man (Jeffrey Hunter) who recently discovers among his comrades that his wife is having an affair with another man (Earl Holliman) and after going to Reno to file for divorce and begin a new life, he later finds himself doing what he can to rectify matters later on when he discovers that the other man is only interested in money and position and he decides to win his true love back again. Although nothing ever came of this, it would have consisted of the following ensemble had it did: Jeffrey Hunter (Martin Heal), Earl Holliman (Christopher Allen), Tab Hunter (Simon Fowler), Lew Ayres (Count Vancott), Robert Wagner (Mitchell Aarons), James Garner (Peter Day), Jerry Mathers (Little Martin), James Stewart (Mr. Heal), Ronald Reagan (Larry), Troy Donahue (Norman Blake), and Stuart Whitman (Oliver, the bartender who spills the beans about the illicit affair).
Of Clan Stewart.
He has appeared in eleven films that have been selected for the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant: Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), Destry Rides Again (1939), The Shop Around the Corner (1940), The Philadelphia Story (1940), It's a Wonderful Life (1946), Winchester '73 (1950), The Naked Spur (1953), Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), Anatomy of a Murder (1959) and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962).
A devotee of Edgar Allan Poe (surprising for such a conservative), he recorded a couple of Poe stories for BBC radio.
He suffered from PTSD.
In direct contrast to his on screen persona, the actor was known in private circles for having a bit of a short fuse.
On August 7, 2019, he was honored with a day of his film work during the Turner Classic Movies Summer Under the Stars.