Malayalam actor who had his roots in theatre. A major actor-playwright in the post-WW2 era with more than 90 plays. He ran the Pratibha Arts Club, an influential theatre group based in Ernakulam. In cinema, he was famous for playing villains. He has also directed, scripted and provided lyrics for movies. His best-known perfromance is in Nirmalayam (1973) as the priest torn between religious responsibilities and the amoral duplicity of those around him.