Maud Olofsson grew up in Högbyn, in Örnsköldsvik Municipality, Västernorrland. She started her political career as an ombudsman of the youth organization of the Centre Party in 1974, and served as a member of the local council in Luleå from 1976. From 1978 to 1981 she held the same job with the party. 1992-1994, during the Carl Bildt center-right government, she worked as Special Adviser to Minister Börje Hörnlund at the Department of Labour. From 1996 she has been a member of the Centre Party board. 1997-2001 she worked as Managing Director for the Rural Economy and Agricultural Societies (Hushållningssällskapet) in Västerbotten.
Her political standpoint could be seen as a traditional Centre Party position, with an emphasis on rural Sweden and the survival of rural communities, combined with center-right economic policies. Although the Centre Party in history has sometimes cooperated with the governing Social Democrats, under Maud Olofsson the party has opted for a clear oppositional role, strengthening its alliance with the Liberals, the Christian Democrats and the Moderate Party.
Maud Olofsson is married with Rolf, with whom she has three children.