Back to the FutureGoofs
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Doc Brown considers traveling to the birth of Christ, which he enters as "DEC 25 0000". There is no year between 1 B.C. and 1 A.D, and it is also believed that Christ was actually born in Spring or Summer of 6 or 4 B.C. (although Robert Zemeckis has claimed that this was meant to be a joke). Furthermore, the DeLorean would still have arrived in California in the "year 0000" with no way to get to the Middle East.
When Marty wakes up in his bed in 1985, in the bookcase behind his head there's a yellow magazine named "RQ". This stands for "Reference Quarterly", a trade journal of reference librarians. In the DVD commentary track by producers Bob Gale and Neil Canton, they admit that the set dresser made a mistake in putting it in, as a teenager would have no reason to have a copy of "RQ".
When Doc is telling Marty how his time machine works, he says, "Never mind that now, never mind that now." When he says this, Marty has the camera down by his side and isn't filming, yet later in the film when Marty shows the film to Doc in 1955, the film starts out with the camera on Doc saying, "never mind that now, never mind that now..."
Crew or equipment visible
Errors in geography
At the end, when the McFly family rushes outside to get a look at the "wrecked" car, they encounter Biff polishing the car. In the background, the street is shown to come to an abrupt end, clearly showing a large commercial building where the street comes to a "T." All other shots of the street where the McFly family lives show a long, residential street that doesn't end.
After Marty arrives in downtown Hill Valley in 1955, you can see some road markers on the side of the road behind him. These markers are for US Highway 8 and US Highway 395. While US-395 does pass through the state of California, US-8 does not and never had, even back in 1955. US-8 runs through the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
After Marty arrives in 1955 early in the morning and leaves the barn, he drives what should be a short distance but when he arrives in front of his neighborhood the sun is quite high in the sky. Although we were never told the distance between the mall (Formerly Peabody farm) and Hill Valley, Marty went to the Twin Pines Mall on his skateboard in a matter of only a few minutes in 1985.
When Marty is getting ready to play guitar through the huge amplifier in Doc Brown's house, he switches on the amplifier, turns all of the gains and overdrive up, plugs the cable into the amplifier, then proceeds to plug the other end of the cable into the guitar. The moment the cable touches the guitar's output jack should have been the moment the amp blew up. Most guitarists will plug the cable into the guitar and amp, THEN turn the amp on. Doing so will avoid making all of the noise that results from the cable and guitar jack making contact.
In the movie Doc says that the time machine is electrical, yet he uses a nuclear reaction to generate power. There is but one type of nuclear reaction that directly generates electrical energy called beta decay, and it is predominantly used for long-term low power output, unlike the high-yield output required by the time circuits. All other nuclear power sources generate heat that is only later transformed into electricity using heat engines and alternators.
When Marty takes the 1955 Doc to find the Time Machine, he said that the starter isn't working right. Though, it is true that the early model DeLoreans are notorious for having faulty ignition systems. But Marty is supposed to be under the notion that the Time Machine ran on Plutonium and not gasoline (as he asked a question regarding to how the Time machine worked to the 1985 Doc earlier in the movie) and he looked back to find that the Plutonium chamber was empty, so he should believe that the DeLorean had no power due to no Plutonium. He wouldn't be made aware that the DeLorean also ran on Gasoline until Part 3.
Incorrectly regarded as goofs
When Doc is walking across the ledge of the clock tower when the camera is looking up towards the ledge, you can see that the section Doc breaks off is clearly marked (it's darker than the rest of the ledge). However, this just indicates that the ledge was in disrepair and only adds to the believability that it would crack under his weight.
Since most pre-1965 silver coinage was out of circulation before 1985, Marty shouldn't have been able to pay for his coffee. However, the coffee Marty purchases only costs a nickel, a coin which did not change its metallurgical configuration or design during the transition. Some problems might have come up from the nickel likely having a post-1955 date, but Marty hadn't been warned of this yet.
Doc needs 1.21 GW to power the time circuits, and he needs plutonium to generate such an amount of power. While it is possible, it isn't necessary to use a nuclear power source. 1.21 GW is power, not energy, meaning that it's the rate at which the time machine uses energy. Presumably Doc needs the time circuits to be pulling such power for a fraction of a second (as the time jumps in the film are almost instant). So Doc could have built it with either a huge capacitor or a battery, which he would've charged to however much energy the time machine needed (by the DeLorean or through a plug), and then the time machine would use that energy to make a time jump, still pulling 1.21 GW of power. This is analogous to a camera flash, which pulls a lot more power than camera batteries can handle, yet only needs to work for a short amount of time. Doc could have used the same idea for the time circuits.
When Doc is trying to reattach the cable at the top of the clock tower he finds it is not long enough because the branch is caught on it at the ground. After pulling it to disconnect it from cable on the lamppost he has enough cable to loop over the clock hand twice. If there was enough cable to do that he shouldn't have had to disconnect from the lamppost in order to meet the connections on the tower.