Anthony Mackie's appearance in this film fulfills his dream of playing a Marvel comic book character. He wrote a series of e-mail pleas to Marvel, wanting to play any comic character that would appear on film. Though the studio repeatedly replied to him that they will respond in due time, Mackie's emails caught the attention of producer Kevin Feige, who subsequently offered him the role of Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon.

(at around 15 mins) Nick Fury relates a story of his grandfather being an elevator operator. In real life, Samuel L. Jackson's grandfather was an elevator operator.

Unlike other films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, this movie minimized the use of visual effects as much as possible. Anthony Mackie elaborated: "The Russos, what they did that was so great was, they wanted to stay with live-action, which is a dying art form. If they could build it, they built it. If we could do it, we did it. They wanted to do as little CGI as possible. That's why the movie looks so great."

Chris Evans and Scarlett Johansson wrote their own dialogue for several scenes they had together.

Robert Redford wanted to do the film because his grandchildren are fans of Marvel films, and he wanted them to see him in one.

(at around 1h 3 mins) Black Widow mentions "Operation Paperclip", which was a real-world reference to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program, in which over one thousand five hundred German scientists, technicians, and engineers from Nazi Germany, and other foreign countries, were brought to the United States for employment in the aftermath of World War II.

(at around 16 mins) When the Helicarriers are revealed for the first time, Fury (Samuel L. Jackson) mentions to Captain America (Chris Evans) that Stark (Robert Downey Jr.) insisted on making changes to the propulsion systems "once he got a closer look". In The Avengers (2012), Iron Man struggled to restart the damaged propeller-based engines of an earlier generation Helicarrier. The new Helicarriers use repulsor technology instead of propellers to create lift.

When asked why Tony Stark, Bruce Banner, or any of the other Avengers weren't called to help Captain America or Black Widow in the film, the screenwriters explained that the movie only takes place in about three days, therefore the characters didn't have a chance to contact them.

(at around 5 mins) The scene where Captain America jumps out of a plane, without bothering to use a parachute, is an homage to a similar scene from the first issue of "The Ultimates" comic.

Cap's new costume takes cues from the "Super-Soldier" outfit he wore when he served as Director of S.H.I.E.L.D. in the comics.

Samuel L. Jackson described Nick Fury as facing a crisis: "Almost everything that comes out of Nick Fury's mouth is a lie in some sense. He has to ask if he is even lying to himself."

While writing the script, there was a big possibility of Hawkeye being in the film. However, the writers felt that there were too many characters introduced, and they didn't want Hawkeye to be there without any depth. They instead decided to write a small scene in which Hawkeye and his whereabouts are mentioned, which was shot, but ultimately wasn't included in the film.

Hayley Atwell was aged using computer graphics imagery for her appearance as an elderly Peggy Carter. Co-director Anthony Russo commented that "all of the old people have looked the same in movies since the 80s when you go down the make-up route." Co-director Joe Russo said: "We changed her face and her muscle structure and all of those things that change when you age."

According to Chris Evans, Steve Rogers continues his adjustment to the modern world, which began in The Avengers (2012): "It's not so much about his shock with technology. It's more about the societal differences. He's gone from the 1940s to today. He comes from a world where people were a little more trusting, the threats not as deep. Now, it's harder to tell who's right and wrong. Actions you take to protect people from threats could compromise liberties and privacy. That's tough for Steve to swallow."

The mall/shopping center in which Black Widow and Captain America visit, in order to find the origin of the encrypted USB stick, is called the Tower City Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The front of the building, and its concourse, were used in The Avengers (2012) as the opera hall in which Loki confronts German opera patrons.

(at around 1h 7 mins) When Alexander Pierce (Robert Redford) is opening his refrigerator, a jar of Newman's Own Sauce is visible on the shelf, an apparent homage to Redford's long-time friend and two-time co-star Paul Newman.

Anthony Mackie took the role of Sam Wilson, a.k.a. Falcon, partly to give African-American kids another black superhero to enjoy in the Marvel Cinematic Universe apart from War Machine in the Iron Man movies. However, he was unhappy with the modern take on his costume as Falcon, since he wanted the red spandex look from the comics. Instead, this film adapts the Falcon from Marvel Comics' Ultimate Marvel imprint, which has him as a special operations soldier who happens to be equipped with a costume, goggles, and a unique winged flying harness with much more subdued dark colors.

In an attempt to prevent spoilers and keep secrecy, the working title of this movie while filming was "Freezer Burn".

(at around 34 mins) When Steve Rogers enters his apartment, you can briefly see a copy of the book "All the President's Men" on his bookshelf. Robert Redford was producer and co-star (with Dustin Hoffman) of the movie adaptation of this book.

The filmmakers described the Winter Soldier as a "negative image of Captain America."

Hawkeye was originally going to appear in several scenes, including a fight sequence where he would have battled Captain America after a prolonged chase through the city. Scheduling issues with Jeremy Renner prevented this. Originally, Hawkeye was sent to hunt down Steve, catching up to him and the two of them fighting. Steve wins, but finds Hawkeye whispering to him to make his defeat look real, revealing Hawkeye deliberately lost because a Quinjet is recording the whole thing overhead. He also alerts Steve about the tracking device in his suit.

There are two post credit scenes for this movie.

Co-director Joe Russo is a big fan of a YouTube channel called Screen Junkies. One of their segments is called Honest Trailers, which features spoofing movie trailers which poke fun at the movies for which they appear to be. Russo was aiming this film to be "Honest Trailer-proof". However, Screen Junkies did release an Honest Trailer for it, in August of 2014, and the Russo brothers appeared in a special video to discuss it with the YouTube channel host Hal Rudnick, and Honest Trailers writers Dan Murrell and Spencer Gilbert on April 16, 2016.

In battling the Winter Soldier, Captain America needs all of the resources he can get, including his iconic shield, which has a lot more uses in this movie. The shield is traditionally used mostly as a defensive weapon, but in this film, the filmmakers wanted to explore using it more as an offensive weapon. There are two handles on the shield, and Steve Rogers can hold onto the handles in order to utilize it in an eastern style of fighting.

(at around 2h) Maria Hill's (Cobie Smulders') last scene is of her joining Stark Industries. In the comics, she served under Tony Stark, but it was the other way around, as he ended up joining S.H.I.E.L.D.

Kevin Feige selected Joe Russo and Anthony Russo to direct the film on the basis of their two back-to-back episodes of Community (2009) that they've directed, with which Feige was impressed: season two, episode twenty-three, "A Fistful of Paintballs" and season two, episode twenty-four, "For a Few Paintballs More".

In the comics, Steve Rogers often struggled financially, taking odd jobs such as comic book illustrator, teacher, etc. However, the Ultimates version states he is financially secure, since he was given sixty years of back pay by the Army for his time in suspended animation. The film version shows he remains employed as a government agent, like the 1960s-1970s comic version.

Shooting in Washington, D.C. put Steve Rogers, Black Widow, and Falcon in scenes at some of the most prominent national landmarks, including the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, Abraham Lincoln Memorial, National Air and Space Museum, Capitol Building, National Mall, Occidental Restaurant at The Willard Hotel, DuPont Circle Neighborhood, and the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, which the production shut down for the first time for the filming of a major motion picture.

Producer Kevin Feige described this movie as "a 1970s political thriller masquerading as a big superhero movie."

(at around 1h 2 mins) In this movie, the audience learns Natasha's full name: Natalia Alianovna Romanova.

This movie is the last live-action appearance of the late Garry Shandling. While this movie was his final appearance on the big screen, his final film role would be in a voice-over, in The Jungle Book (2016).

The freighter Batroc hijacks in the beginning is named the "Lemurian Star". This is a reference to Lemuria, the sunken continent that was the home of the Deviants, a race of superhumans created by Jack Kirby.

Anthony Mackie likes to say "cut the check!" whenever something had gone right or a scene had been completed. The phrase caught on during filming, and before long everyone on-set was saying it. However, according to the directors, he overdid it so many times that it started to lose effect after a while.

(at around 1h 30 mins) The photo of Alexander Pierce (Robert Redford) from 1992 is a still image of Redford from Sneakers (1992).

UFC Welterweight champion Georges St-Pierre plays an Algerian mercenary in the film. For the filmmakers, landing the popular MMA fighter for the role, was a stroke of luck and good timing, but it was equally a stroke of luck for St. Pierre, who was excited to get his first chance at being in a big action movie.

Anthony Mackie described the film as "The Avengers: Part 1.5".

(at around 2 mins) When Rogers talks for the first time with Wilson, he mentions some differences between his time and modern times. He comments "No polio is great". It's a nod to Captain America (1990), where Steve Rogers (Matt Salinger) was sick with polio before undergoing the experiment to become Captain America.

Prior to the release of this film, there was some doubt that this sequel would have much appeal outside of the United States considering the character's obvious American imagery. However, the film proved to be a major international success upon release.

(at around 2 mins) Cap's list of the things he missed, includes the Moon Landing. In the Marvel storyline "House of M" (an alternate reality, where Magneto and mutants rule the Earth) Cap was the first man on the moon.

Although Captain America never holds or uses a gun in this film, he is still sometimes seen wearing a holstered pistol on his belt.

In his first comic incarnation, Falcon had the superpower to communicate with birds telepathically. The film version, much like the Marvel Ultimate comics version, does not give Falcon any superpowers.

In the comics, the Winter Soldier trained Natasha Romanov, and the two eventually were in a romantic relationship.

This movie takes place two years after The Avengers (2012).

Although playing a French/Algerian character, Georges St-Pierre speaks his lines in his native French-Canadian accent.

Chapter Three of Phase Two in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

Anthony Mackie did this movie so that his son and other black children can see that there are superheroes who look like them.

The score from Captain America: The First Avenger (2011) is heard at the beginning, when Steve Rogers and Sam Wilson are jogging in Washington, D.C.

The name "exo-7" of the prototype wings used by Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon, is a pun on French pronunciation "exocet", which is the name of a type of flying fish that has shiny "wings".

Robert Redford was cast, in part, as an homage to his roles in 1970s thrillers like Three Days of the Condor (1975).

Georges St-Pierre, who plays Batroc the Leaper, is the former UFC Welterweight Champion (2008-2013), having vacated his title in December 2013.

This marks the first Marvel Cinematic Universe film in which vehicles produced by an American car maker, Chevrolet, are featured as part of a product-placement deal. Chevy vehicles prominently featured in the movie include a pre-production 2014 Corvette Stingray, driven by Natasha in an early scene; a Tahoe SUV (featuring a substantial number of S.H.I.E.L.D. upgrades, including bulletproof glass and the ability to drive itself) driven by Nick Fury during an extended chase sequence; a Silverado pickup truck driven by Steve; and an Impala driven by Sam. Other Chevy vehicles are plainly visible in some shots, including several of its limited-production Volt hybrid vehicle.

The Russo Brothers cited Klute (1971), The Parallax View (1974), Three Days of the Condor (1975), All the President's Men (1976), The French Connection (1971), and To Live and Die in L.A. (1985) as inspirations for making this film.

Before settling on a darker military outfit, several of the proposed Falcon costumes featured a more armored look, complete with a helmet. At least one of the suits also retained Falcon's red and white color scheme from the comics, as well the golden forehead crest he wears on his mask.

Anna Kendrick, Felicity Jones, Imogen Poots, Teresa Palmer, Alison Brie, Emilia Clarke, Mary Elizabeth Winstead, Elizabeth Olsen, and Jessica Brown Findlay were considered to play Sharon Carter. Although the role ultimately went to Emily VanCamp, Olsen appears as Wanda Maximoff a.k.a. Scarlet Witch in a mid-credits scene.

One country where this film proved unexpectedly popular to a major degree was in China. Apparently, the adventures of a superhero with such a patriotic motif who was willing to defy his government when he found it morally necessary proved appealing to the citizenry of a nation with an authoritarian regime.

In the commentary, the filmmakers say the mask used by Natasha Romanov is based on the mask used by the Red Skull in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), thus showing another link between H.Y.D.R.A. and S.H.I.E.L.D.

Captain America's motorcycle featured in the film is a Harley-Davidson Street 750.

(at around 1h 15 mins) Scarlett Johansson and Chris Evans were in The Perfect Score (2004). In that movie, they, and a group of high school students, plot to steal the answers to the S.A.T. In this movie, when Black Widow and Captain America are interrogating Sitwell, he makes reference to "Perfect Score", when he says that S.H.I.E.L.D. knows everything about them, even their S.A.T. scores.

Michael B. Jordan read for the role of Falcon. He played Erik Killmonger in Black Panther (2018).

Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Kevin Durand, and Josh Holloway screentested for the role of Brock Rumlow a.k.a. Crossbones.

In the opening sequence on the Lumerian Star, Captain America's shield has pale colors of red and blue. The next time you see Captain America with his shield after the mission on the ship, he has his shield with the original solid red and blue colors. There is no explanation of what happened to the first shield, as it is never seen again after the mission on the ship. It is assumed that it was simply painted muted colors for a camouflage effect, and then repainted to its original colors after the night mission.

(at around 1h 40 mins) Alexander Pierce (Robert Redford) says "What if Pakistan marched into Mumbai tomorrow?" This dialogue is the reference to Mumbai terror attacks, which was done by terrorists group situated in Pakistan, on Hotel Taj Palace, Mumbai in 2008.

Agent Sitwell was a zombie in the comics.

(at around 13 mins) The coordinates of the Triskelion (when corrected from the impossible south longitude to west longitude) are 38N 53'33.78" 77W 3' 38.91. This puts it on Theodore Roosevelt Island, in the Potomac River, Washington, D.C., with the shown view of the Abraham Lincoln Memorial to its southeast.

(at around 34 mins) When Steve sneaks into his apartment through the window, the book Night Stalkers by Mike Durant can be seen at the bottom of the horizontal stack of books. Durant served in the Army as a Chief Warrant Officer 4, and was taken prison in Somalia during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993. He was released after spending eleven days in captivity. Black Hawk Down (2001) portrayed the events of the battle, and Durant's capture.

In this movie, Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow was twenty-nine years old, one year older than Steve Rogers a.k.a. Captain America, who was only twenty-eight years old (biologically). In real life, Scarlett Johansson is three years younger than Chris Evans.

Near the beginning of the film, in an aerial shot of Washington, D.C., the camera lingers on a shot centered on the Watergate complex, where President Richard Nixon's Committee to Re-elect the President (the Plumbers) broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters, sparking the Watergate scandal, which led to the revelation Nixon had been using the intelligence agencies to gain political power. Robert Redford played Bob Woodward in the famous Watergate scandal movie All the President's Men (1976).

Chris McKenna, who worked with the Russo Brothers on Community (2009), did some script polishing during production.

When Steve Rogers is shown touring the Captain America exhibit at the Smithsonian, there is a museum board with the title, " Welcome Back Cap." with a message thanking Captain America for his service to America. The message is signed by President Matthew Ellis, who would first appear in Iron Man 3 (2013), portrayed by William Sadler.

The second time Henry Jackman replaced Alan Silvestri as the music composer for the film. The first being G.I. Joe: Retaliation (2013).

In Captain America #180 (Dec. 1974) Steve Rogers can be seen leaping on top of cars in civilian clothes. A passerby comments that it must be Robert Redford.

F. Gary Gray and George Nolfi were considered to direct the film. F. Gary Gray previously directed Samuel L. Jackson in The Negotiator (1998), while George Nolfi previously directed Anthony Mackie in The Adjustment Bureau (2011).

Reunites Robert Redford with Scarlett Johansson after in The Horse Whisperer (1998), 16 years later.

In this movie, Robert Redford plays Alexander Pierce, and Sir Ben Kingsley plays Trevor Slattery in Iron Man 3 (2013). Both worked together in Sneakers (1992), with Kingsley playing the villain, and Redford the main protagonist. Now, both Academy Award winning actors have been in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

Ed Brubaker: (at around 1h 27 mins) A scientist at the birth of the Winter Soldier is played by the author of the Winter Soldier comic book.

Joss Whedon: (at around 18 mins) Writer and director of The Avengers (2012) and Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) as the man wearing a Captain America t-shirt, and going down the escalator with a little boy at the Smithsonian Institution.

Gary Sinise: (at around 18 mins) The info voice narrating the history of the Howling Commandos in the museum.

Stan Lee: (at around 1h 30 mins) As a security guard at the Smithsonian Institution, who notices the original Captain America costume is missing and says "I am so fired".

Garry Shandling: Reprising his role as Senator Stern from Iron Man 2 (2010).

Christopher Markus, Stephen McFeely: The film's writers appear as the two S.H.I.E.L.D. interrogators.

Danny Pudi: (at around 1h 35 mins) As the Com Tech operator who lets Captain America into the communications room. The Russo brothers previously directed Pudi on "Community," where he played Abed.

Steven Culp: (at around 2h) The Representative who angrily interrogates Black Widow at the hearing is better known for playing the antagonistic Speaker of the House in The West Wing (1999) and CIA Agent Clayton Webb on JAG.

(at around 2h) Nick Fury's "grave" bears the epitaph: "The path of the righteous man. Ezekiel 25:17." This is a favorite line of Jules Winnfield (Samuel L. Jackson) in Pulp Fiction (1994).

There is a brief mention of a Canadian agency called "Department H" by Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow (Scarlett Johansson), which was the organization that experimented on Wolverine and gave him his Adamantium-bonded skeleton in the Marvel comics. In addition, it is the organization that created the Canadian superhero team Alpha Flight.

A deleted scene from The Avengers (2012) shows Steve learning what happened to his commandos and to Peggy Carter. Similar scenes are shown in this film.

Sebastian Stan is contracted for nine films, but according to him, when production for this film began, he was not told anything of which films he will be incorporated. Stan only realized he was playing the title role of the Winter Soldier when the title was formally revealed in San Diego Comic-Con 2013.

In several scenes, Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow wears a necklace with an arrow on it. This is a reference to her teammate Hawkeye, but it also spread the doubt of them being lovers. The necklace was Scarlett Johansson's idea.

(at around 2 mins) The "catch-up" list Captain America (Chris Evans) keeps with him varies from country to country: All versions list Thai Food, Star Wars, Star Trek, Nirvana (Band), Rocky (1976) (Rocky II (1979)?) and Troubleman (Soundtrack). U.S. version lists: I Love Lucy (1951), Moon Landing, Berlin Wall (Up + Down), Steve Jobs (Apple), Disco. U.K. version lists The Beatles, Sir Sean Connery, and Sherlock (2010). Australian version lists AC/DC, space travel, Steve Irwin, Skippy (1968) and Tim Tams. Italian version mentions Vasco Rossi, Ferrari's victories at F1 Grand Prix, and Roberto Benigni. French version mentions 1998 World Cup, Louis de Funès, Coluche, The Fifth Element (1997), and Daft Punk. Russian version lists: Yuri Gagarin, Vladimir Vysotskiy, and Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears (1980). Brazilian version lists: Wagner Moura, Ayrton Senna, Xuxa, and Mamonas Assassinas. South Korean version mentions Oldboy (2003), Dance Dance Revolution, the 2002 World Cup, and soccer player Ji Sung Park. Spanish version lists Rafael Nadal, Chupa Chups (a popular candy brand), Héroes del Silencio (Band), 1978 Constitution, and Camilo José Cela (Nobel Prize winner). Mexican version mentions Nobel Prize winner Octavio Paz and astronaut Rodolfo Neri Vela. Latin American versions mention Shakira, Chilean Miner's Rescue, and Maradona's Hand of God.

During filming, Sebastian Stan would walk around all day practicing his moves with a plastic knife because he wanted his movements to feel natural.

(at around 33 mins) The laser cutter that Nick Fury uses to escape from his ruined SUV into the sewer, has the same blue beam as the one used to access the plane buried in the ice in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011). The episode of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013), that aired directly after the film's release, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Providence (2014), revealed that they were invented by Fitz.

(at around 1h 55 mins) When the Helicarriers are looking for their targets, on one of the monitors there is a wire-frame model of the former Stark Tower in New York City, now sporting the Avengers sign. In the same image is a mugshot of Tony Stark, on the right-hand side, as a H.Y.D.R.A. target.

To prepare for the role of the Winter Soldier, Sebastian Stan went through five months of physical training and historical research: "I dove into the whole Cold War history: I looked at the KGB. I looked at all kinds of spy movies, and all kinds of documentaries about that time, and what it was about. I grabbed anything from that time period, and anything about brainwashing."

(at around 2h) At the end of the movie, Brock Rumlow (Frank Grillo) can be seen burned, but alive, being healed by some doctors while he is moved in an ambulance. In the comics, Crossbones (Rumlow's supervillain moniker) had his face severely burned, necessitating that he wear a mask.

The Falcon's flight gear sports a Stark Industries logo. This indicates they are the manufacturer.

(at around 1h 50 mins) The list of targets selected by the Helicarriers include Tony Stark and President Matthew Ellis from Iron Man 3 (2013).

First film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe to reveal Nick Fury's blind eye.

The two subjects in the H.Y.D.R.A. base in the mid-credit scene are identified as Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver.

Comic book writer Ed Brubaker was pleased and surprised at the adaptation of the Winter Soldier storyline, his work on the title, including the return of Bucky Barnes as the Winter Soldier: "I got to go out to Marvel Studios and read one of the later drafts of the script. I went out to dinner with directors Joe and Anthony Russo, and talked about the project, and gave them feedback on what I liked, or didn't like, or what parts didn't work. I mean, the script I read was fantastic. The tone of it, and the Bucky stuff is so perfect, and the way I'd want it to be, I was so thrilled to see that."

(at around 2h 5 mins) Kate/Agent 13 (Emily VanCamp) is later referred to by her real name "Sharon Carter". Many fans would have put it together, when she was called Agent 13, and others, when she is called Sharon, but this is Sharon Carter, Peggy's younger sister in the comics (they later changed it to her niece, when they made continuity changes, but the relationship in the movie is not established) and a major love interest for Captain America. What, if anything, this will mean for future movies remains to be seen. The cover name "Kate" is from S.H.I.E.L.D. Agent Kate Neville.

The Winter Soldier (Bucky Barnes) is able to match Captain America (Steve Rogers) move by move, even to the point of catching Rogers' shield. This foreshadows Barnes taking over as Captain America (which happened in the comics).

The elevator fight with the Strike Team attempting to take Cap prisoner is an homage to the Civil War story arc, when Cap refuses to participate in the government's plan to register all superheroes and S.H.I.E.L.D. attempts to take him prisoner.

A deleted scene shows Maria Hill and Sitwell conversing after Cap's escape, ending with her being put under investigation because of her mild taunt that Rogers tends to inspire loyalty.

Robert Redford wanted to be in this movie so that he could play a villain, since he almost never gets cast as one. He also reportedly wanted to experience the new style of filmmaking that utilized high technology to bring its characters to life.

Jasper Sitwell (Maximiliano Hernández) mentions some high-risk targets that H.Y.D.R.A. is keeping tabs on. Among these are Bruce Banner (The Hulk), Dr. Stephen Strange, and "a man in Cairo". The latter is most likely Marc Spector/Moon Knight, an Avengers team member who hasn't made it into the movies yet.

Baron von Strucker (Thomas Kretschmann) experiments on twins with superpowers. In the comics, Strucker actually subjected his own twins Andrea and Andreas to a treatment which gave them superpowers.

Joss Whedon directed the mid-credits scene with Baron Strucker, Quicksilver, and Scarlet Witch that sets up Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).

A deleted scene explains why Captain America had to borrow his old uniform from the museum. He let the S.T.R.I.K.E. team track his new uniform to a basketball court, while he went back to the hospital in regular clothes.

(at around 1h 11 mins) Steve Rogers tells Natasha Romanov that he is "always honest". He takes this to an extreme when addressing S.H.I.E.L.D. about the H.Y.D.R.A. takeover (at around 1h 35 mins). Although everyone believed that Nick Fury had been killed, Steve only states that Alexander Pierce had Fury "shot", since Steve knew that Fury was still alive.

According to producer Kevin Feige, every Marvel Cinematic Universe Phase 2 movie has an homage to Star Wars, in the form of a character losing an arm. -In Iron Man 3 (2013), Aldrich Killian loses an arm during the battle with Tony Stark. -In Thor: The Dark World (2013), Loki cuts off Thor's arm on Svartalfheim. -In Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Bucky lost his arm during his fall from the train. In Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Gamora cuts off Groot's arm during the group's initial scuffle on Xandar.

The film's plot is based on the storylines "The Winter Soldier" (Captain America's new threat) and "The Ultimates" (S.H.I.E.L.D. is taken over by H.Y.D.R.A.). And long before "The Ultimates", "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D."

This is the first film involving Captain America in which Steve Rogers never uses, or even touches, a firearm of any kind.

One of the first-revealed deleted scenes was a short, painful conversation between Natasha and Nick Fury about his decision not to bring her in on his survival plan. Scarlett Johansson suggested it be cut because it disrupted the momentum of the film, and the basic gist of the scene is still conveyed without being needed to spell it out. Albeit, this scene also introduced the photo-veil, the high-tech mask that allows Natasha to impersonate the female councilwoman and enter the Triskelion.

The outfit that Nick Fury wears in his last scene in this movie was the same outfit he was seen wearing in the first season finale "Beginning of the End" of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013), right down to the sunglasses and beanie.

(at around 1h 2 mins) When Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanov encounter Zola's supercomputer in the secret room of the military bunkhouse, it identifies Natasha as being born in 1984, the same year as Scarlett Johansson.

Before his death in The Avengers (2012), and subsequent resurrection in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013), Marvel considered revealing Phil Coulson as a H.Y.D.R.A. agent. He would have played the role that Sitwell does in the finished film.

The mask of Winter Soldier is exactly opposite to the mask of Captain America, just like Cap's image. Winter Soldier's mask covers his lower face (and his eyes when wearing goggles), where Cap's reveals his lower face and his eyes.

At one point, the writers had proposed sparing Arnim Zola by revealing that the computer in which he housed his memory could transform into a mobile robotic body. Marvel vetoed the idea, on the grounds that it was too silly.

The Winter Soldier only lands a total of nine hits in the entire film with his metal arm: one punch on Cap in the street fight, one backhand on the doctor fixing his arm, and seven hits on Cap in the final fight, all of which are hits Cap let him land. All of his other strikes are either blocked or with his non-metal arm. Like Cap, he uses his metal arm like a shield, mainly to block.

Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon got double exposure in 2014. First, he is included as a major character in this movie, and in Captain America: Civil War (2016). Secondly, in the comics, with Steve Rogers having aged rapidly, Wilson has been called upon to replace him as the new Captain America.

Joe Russo: (at around 1h 26 mins) The doctor treating Natasha (Scarlett Johansson), when she and Steve (Chris Evans) were brought in by Maria (Cobie Smulders) to the safe house.

Aaron Taylor-Johnson and Elizabeth Olsen appear as Quicksilver and The Scarlet Witch, respectively, in a mid-credits scene, which sets the stage for Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).

The "winter soldier" title is assumed to refer to either Bucky's nickname, the Cold War, or how he was kept in a cold-based suspended animation between missions. But from the commentary, it actually refers to an eighteenth century quote from Thomas Paine: "THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he (the winter soldier) that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman." Therefore, thematically, the "winter soldier" is Cap, not Bucky.

(at around 1h) When Captain America and Black Widow enter the H.Y.D.R.A. base, there can be seen the photographs of the three S.H.I.E.L.D. founders. In these three appear Tommy Lee Jones, Hayley Atwell, and Dominic Cooper, who appeared in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011).

(at around 1h 2 mins) In Dr. Zola's lair, Black Widow says "Shall we play a game?" This was a line taken from WarGames (1983), which was a movie about war simulation programs run by a national defense computer, which almost triggers a nuclear war.

(at around 33 mins) When Kate/Agent 13 finishes her phone call and makes small talk with Steve Rogers (in their mutual hallway), she says about the call, "My aunt's kind of an insomniac". Agent 13's name is actually Sharon Carter, and her aunt is Steve's former love interest Peggy Carter.

(at around 1h 15 mins) While Rogers and Romanov are questioning Agent Sitwell about Zola's algorithm, Sitwell lists people that are being tracked. He mentions Stephen Strange. He is the main character in Doctor Strange (2016), played by Benedict Cumberbatch.

The song playing in Steve Rogers's apartment when Fury is waiting for him is the same song playing at the end of Avengers: Endgame where Peggy and Steve are slow dancing.

When Nick Fury is racing through the busy streets, after his SUV has been attacked, there are two clips where he drives by the street (E 9th) and intersection (E 9th and Euclid) where the street battle scenes from The Avengers (2012) were shot. There is also a very short clip of him driving down the street where those scenes were shot. Several of the buildings from The Avengers (2012) can be seen. Also, the rotunda-styled bank, where Bucky goes for his treatments, is the same building from The Avengers (2012), of which Captain America was blown out, when the alien grenade went off.

(at around 2h) The document in Nick's box is a Thai Working Permit.

By the time this movie came out, the fact that Jasper Sitwell mentions Dr. Stephen Strange as an objective for Project Insight becomes somewhat anachronic. The most common (and simple) explanation for this theory comes from the fact that Dr. Strange movie made no specific timestamp references that could be somewhat related to Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014); under this logic, Stephen Strange could've been the supreme sorcerer even before the events seen on Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), thus explaining this scene. Another theory is that this throw away line is evidence that the 'predictive' qualities of project insight are accurate - it has highlighted Stephen Strange as a threat to HYDRA even before he has become one.

The Winter Soldier does not appear until thirty-two minutes into the movie.

In the comics, Baron Strucker is the father of super villains Andrea and Andreas von Strucker, who appear as unrelated characters in The Gifted (2017).

The dialogue between Pierce and Natasha, about potentially leaking her past alongside the entire S.H.I.E.L.D. database, ran longer, with a mention that Pierce isn't doing anything to stop it because H.Y.D.R.A.'s existence being known to the public won't matter once the Helicarriers are fully operational.

(at around 1h 15 mins) When Jasper Sitwell is being interrogated, he tells Captain America and Black Widow that a lot of humans will be killed by the Helicarriers, which attended Project Insight. Among those names, he mentioned Dr. Stephen Strange and Dr. Bruce Banner. Bruce Banner is better known as The Incredible Hulk, whereas Dr. Strange is the protagonist in Doctor Strange (2016). They are the main characters of "The Defenders" in the comic books.

The Russo brothers considered using the "Captain America" March for when Steve Rogers steals his old Captain America costume from the Smithsonian Institution for the final battle against H.Y.D.R.A., but ultimately decided it wasn't necessary, since this movie is different in tone than Captain America: The First Avenger (2011).

This movie and Captain America: The First Avenger (2011) involved Captain America falling into a water body in the end: The Arctic in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011) and the Potomac River in this movie.

The only Captain America film in the trilogy of MCU films where the main villain is killed off.

During the scene where Steve (Chris Evans) and Natasha (Scarlett Johansson) are speaking to Arnim Zola (Toby Jones) in his computer form, Zola mentions that H.Y.D.R.A. changes the present when the need suits them. During this speech, the image of the Winter Soldier can be seen aiming an assault rifle right before the image of a newspaper bearing the headline that Howard and Maria Stark died in a car accident. It was revealed in this movie that the Winter Soldier was responsible for the deaths of Howard and Maria Stark.

The bible verse inscribed on Nick Fury's tombstone pays homage to his character from Pulp Fiction.

When Steve Rogers finds an injured Nick Fury in his apartment after the attack on Fury by Hydra agents, the music playing is "It's Been a Long, Long Time," (or Kiss Me Once and Kiss Me Twice" - 1945) This was the same song played in the last scene of Avengers: Endgame, when we see Rogers reunited with a young Peggy Carter.

(at around 57 mins) When Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanov are talking in the stolen truck, Natasha asks where Captain America learned to steal a car. In Captain America (1990), he stole multiple vehicles from American citizens.

D.C. Pierson: (at around 55 mins) The big bearded man in the Apple Store at the mall with Natasha and Steve hiding in plain sight while Brock's team pursuing them.

The courtroom scene at the end of the movie reveals Black Widow was born in 1984 and is 29-30 years of age. Scarlett Johansson was born on November 22nd 1984.

(at around 14 mins) Nick Fury (Samuel L. Jackson) justifies his misdirection during the hostage rescue mission: "The last time I trusted somebody, I lost an eye." In Captain Marvel (2019), however, it shown that Fury lost his eye when Goose the Cat, a Flerken he befriended while helping Captain Marvel during the Kree-Skrull Wars, scratched it, not because someone betrayed him. So Fury lies again! However, during the climactic fight between Captain Marvel and the Krees, Fury tells Goose he's putting his trust in her as they escape the chaos, so Fury is being truthful that he trusted someone and it cost him his eye; he's only not telling Captain America who he trusted was a Flerken or a cat.

One of the motorcycles used during filming (during the H.Y.D.R.A. uprising and prison break), is a Harley-Davidson Street 750. It's their newest bike model in thirteen years.

Natasha Romanov disguised herself as Councilwoman Hawley by wearing a holographic mask of her. The holographic masks were used in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013) by Agent 33/Kara to impersonate Agent May (among others).

This film has four references to India. The ship Lemurian Star is named after a mythical super-continent Lemuria, that connected southern India Australia and Madagascar. The location of Lemurian star when s.t.r.i.k.e team boards is very close to India. One of the world council members is an Indian. Alexander Pearce justifies the need for project insight by referring to a situation very similar to the 2008 Mumbai attacks; the worst terrorist attack in India.

Mission: Impossible (1996) and Total Recall (2012) are speculated to be influences behind the movie. The Mission: Impossible connection: Captain America is forced to go on the run and is hunted by S.H.I.E.L.D. Agents, and is branded a traitor when he is implicated in Nick Fury's assassination. With help from Black Widow and The Falcon, Captain America sets out to solve the mystery behind Nick Fury's assassination by following the trail of Nick Fury's mysterious assassin The Winter Soldier and they soon discover Secretary Alexander Pierce is a traitor, and he masterminded the assassination, and Nick Fury is later revealed to be very much alive and that he faked his own death. The Total Recall (2012) connection: Black Widow disguises herself as Councilwoman Hawley by wearing a Photostatic Veil (Holographic mask) to access the Triskelion and get close to Pierce.

Characters accuse (or rightfully call out) each other of lying no fewer than eight times in this film. Steve accuses Nick after learning that Natasha had her own mission; Natasha accuses Steve when he conceals information about Nick; Pierce accuses Steve for the same reason. Steve tells Natasha to stop lying when trying to find out where the flash drive is. Members of the World Security system accuse Nick of lying about his agenda with the opening raid; Natasha laments having told lies for both the KGB and Hydra; and later tells the Senate subcommittee that Hydra was selling them lies; they in turn point out that she has had a large role in telling them.

Sharon Carter (Emily VanCamp) is revealed to be Agent 13. In The Avengers (2012)' post-credits scene, the SHIELD agent present when Captain America wakes up uses Code 13 to alert the other agents of his escape.