Anthony Mackie's appearance in this film fulfills his dream of playing a Marvel comic book character. He wrote a series of email pleas to Marvel, wanting to play any comic character that would appear on film. Though the studio repeatedly replied to him that they will respond in due time, Mackie's emails caught the attention of Kevin Feige, who subsequently offered him the role of Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon.

(at around 15 mins) Nick Fury relates a story of his grandfather being an elevator operator. In real-life, Samuel L. Jackson's grandfather was an elevator operator.

(at around 1h 50 mins) When the Helicarriers are looking for their targets, on one of the monitors, there is a wire-frame model of the former Stark Tower in New York City, now sporting the Avengers sign. In the same image, is a mugshot of Tony Stark, on the right-hand side, as a HYDRA target.

In several scenes, Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow wears a necklace with an arrow on it. This is a reference to her teammate Hawkeye. The necklace was Scarlett Johansson's idea.

There is a brief mention of a Canadian agency called Department H by Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow, which was the organization that experimented on Wolverine, and gave him his Adamantium-bonded skeleton in the Marvel comics. In addition, it is the organization that created the Canadian superhero team, Alpha Flight.

(at around 2 mins) The "catch-up" list Captain America keeps with him varies from country to country: U.S. version lists: I Love Lucy (1951), Moon Landing, Berlin Wall (Up + Down), Steve Jobs (Apple), Disco, Thai Food, Star Wars/Trek, Nirvana (Band), Rocky (1976) (Rocky II (1979)?) and Troubleman (Soundtrack). UK version lists The Beatles, Sean Connery, and Sherlock (2010). Australian version lists AC/DC, space travel, Steve Irwin, Skippy (1967) and Tim Tams. Italian version mentions Vasco Rossi, Ferrari's victories at F1 Grand Prix, and Roberto Benigni. French version mentions 1998 World Cup, Louis de Funès, Coluche, The Fifth Element (1997), and Daft Punk. Russian version lists: Yuri Gagarin, Vladimir Vysotskiy, and Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears (1980). Brazilian version lists: Wagner Moura, Ayrton Senna, Xuxa, and Mamonas Assassinas. South Korean version mentions Oldboy (2003) and soccer player Ji Sung Park. Spanish version lists Rafael Nadal, Chupa Chups (a popular candy brand), Héroes del Silencio (Band), 1978 Constitution, and Camilo José Cela (Nobel Prize winner). Mexican version mentions Nobel Prize winner Octavio Paz and astronaut Rodolfo Neri Vela. Latin American versions mention Shakira, and Alexander Pierce and Nick Fury working with the U.S. Embassy in Bogota, Colombia against the ELN Guerrillas.

A deleted scene in The Avengers (2012) shows Steve learning what happened to his commandos and to Peggy Carter. The footage is included in this film.

During filming, Sebastian Stan would walk around all day practicing his moves with a plastic knife because he wanted his movements to feel natural.

Unlike other films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, "The Winter Soldier" minimizes the use of visual effects as much as possible. Anthony Mackie elaborated: "The Russos, what they did that was so great was, they wanted to stay with live action, which is a dying art form...If they could build it, they built it. If we could do it, we did it. They wanted to do as little CGI as possible. That's why the movie looks so great."

Chris Evans and Scarlett Johansson wrote their own dialogue for several scenes they had together.

The Falcon's flight gear sports a Stark Industries logo. This indicates they are the manufacturer.

Robert Redford wanted to do the film, because his grandchildren are fans of Marvel films, and he wanted them to see him in one.

To prepare for the role of the Winter Soldier, Sebastian Stan went through five months of physical training and historical research: "I dove into the whole Cold War history: I looked at the KGB. I looked at all kinds of spy movies, and all kinds of documentaries about that time, and what it was about. I grabbed anything from that time period and anything about brainwashing."

(at around 16 mins) When the Helicarriers are revealed for the first time, Fury mentions to Captain America that Stark insisted on making changes to the propulsion systems "once he got a closer look". In The Avengers (2012), Iron Man struggled to restart the damaged propeller-based engines of an earlier generation Helicarrier. The new Helicarriers seem to use jet or repulsor technology instead of propellers to create lift.

The elevator fight with the Strike Team attempting to take Cap prisoner, is an homage to the Civil War story arc, when Cap refuses to participate in the government's plan to register all superheroes, and S.H.I.E.L.D. attempts to take him prisoner.

Cap's new costume takes cues from the "Super-Soldier" outfit he wore when he served as Director of S.H.I.E.L.D. in the comics.

While writing the script, there was a big possibility of Hawkeye being in the film. However, the writers felt that there were too many characters introduced, and they didn't want Hawkeye to be there without any depth. They instead decided to write a small scene, in which Hawkeye and his whereabouts are mentioned, which was shot, but ultimately wasn't included in the film.

(at around 5 mins) The scene where Captain America jumps out of a plane, without bothering to use a parachute, is an homage to a similar scene from the first issue of "The Ultimates" comic.

When asked why Tony Stark, Bruce Banner, or any of the other Avengers weren't called to help Captain America or Black Widow in the film, the screen writers explained that the movie only takes place in about three days, therefore, the characters didn't have a chance to contact them.

According to Chris Evans, Steve Rogers continues his adjustment to the modern world, which began in The Avengers (2012): "It's not so much about his shock with technology. It's more about the societal differences. He's gone from the 1940s to today; he comes from a world where people were a little more trusting, the threats not as deep. Now, it's harder to tell who's right and wrong. Actions you take to protect people from threats could compromise liberties and privacy. That's tough for Steve to swallow."

Samuel L. Jackson describes Nick Fury as facing a crisis: "Almost everything that comes out of Nick Fury's mouth is a lie in some sense. He has to ask if he is even lying to himself?"

Hayley Atwell was aged using computer-generated imagery for her appearance as an elderly Peggy Carter, Anthony Russo commented that "all the old people have looked the same in movies since the 80s when you go down the make-up route." Joe Russo said: "We changed her face and her muscle structure and all of those things that change when you age".

Jasper Sitwell mentions some high-risk targets that HYDRA is keeping tabs on. Among these are Bruce Banner (The Hulk), Dr. Stephen Strange, and "a man in Cairo". The latter is most likely Marc Spector/Moon Knight, an Avengers team member who hasn't made it into the movies yet.

(at around 1h 3 mins) Black Widow mentions "Operation Paperclip" which is a real-world reference to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program, in which over 1,500 German scientists, technicians, and engineers from Nazi Germany, and other foreign countries, were brought to the United States for employment in the aftermath of World War II.

The mall/shopping center, in which Black Widow and Captain America visit, in order to find the origin of the encrypted USB stick, is called the Tower City Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The front of the building, and its concourse, were used in The Avengers (2012) as the opera hall, in which Loki confronts German opera patrons.

Anthony Mackie took the role of Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon, partly to give African-American kids another black superhero to enjoy, in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, apart from War Machine in the Iron Man movies. However, he was unhappy with the modern take on his costume as Falcon, since he wanted the red spandex look from the comics. Instead, this film adapts the Falcon from Marvel Comics' Ultimate Marvel imprint, which has him as a special operations soldier, who happens to be equipped with a costume, goggles and a unique winged flying harness with much more subdued dark colors.

Joe Russo is a big fan of a YouTube channel called Screen Junkies. One of their segments is called Honest Trailers, which features satirical movie trailers, which poke fun at the movies, for which they appear to be. Russo was aiming this film to be "Honest Trailer-proof". However, Screen Junkies did release an Honest Trailer for it, in August of 2014, and the Russo Brothers later appeared in a special video to discuss it with the YouTube channel host Hal Rudnick, and Honest Trailers writers Dan Murrell and Spencer Gilbert, on April 16, 2016.

(at around 1h 2 mins) In this movie, the audience learns Natasha's full name: Natalia Alianovna Romanova.

In an attempt to prevent spoilers and keep secrecy, the working title of the project while filming was "Freezer Burn."

(at around 1h 7 mins) When Robert Redford's character is opening his refrigerator, a jar of Newman's Own Sauce is visible on the shelf, an apparent homage to his long-time friend and two-time co-star Paul Newman.

Hawkeye was originally going to appear in several scenes, including a fight sequence where he would have battled Captain America after a prolonged chase through the city. Scheduling issues with Jeremy Renner prevented this. Originally, Hawkeye was sent to hunt down Steve, catching up to him and the two of them fighting. Steve wins, but finds Hawkeye whispering to him to make his defeat look real, revealing Hawkeye deliberately lost because a Quinjet is recording the whole thing overhead. He also alerts Steve about the tracking device in his suit.

A deleted scene shows Maria Hill and Sitwell conversing after Cap's escape, ending with her being put under investigation because of her mild taunt that Rogers tends to inspire loyalty.

This film is the last live-action appearance of the late Garry Shandling. While this film would be his final appearance on the big screen, his final film role would be in a voice-over, in The Jungle Book (2016).

There are actually two post credit scenes for this Marvel film.

In battling the Winter Soldier, Captain America needs all the resources he can get, including his iconic shield, which has a lot more uses in the film. The shield is traditionally used mostly as a defensive weapon, but in this film, the filmmakers wanted to explore using it more as an offensive weapon. There are two handles on the shield, and Steve Rogers can hold onto the handles in order to utilize it in an eastern style of fighting.

The filmmakers described the Winter Soldier as a "negative image of Captain America."

Shooting in Washington, D.C., put Steve Rogers, Black Widow, and Falcon in scenes at some of the most prominent national landmarks, including the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, Abraham Lincoln Memorial, National Air and Space Museum, Capitol Building, National Mall, Occidental Restaurant at The Willard Hotel, DuPont Circle Neighborhood, and the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, which the production shut down for the first time ever, for the filming of a major motion picture.

(at around 34 mins) When Steve Rogers enters his apartment, you can briefly see a copy of the book "All the President's Men" on his bookshelf. Robert Redford was producer and co-star (with Dustin Hoffman) of the movie adaptation of this book.

The outfit that Nick Fury wears in his last scene in this movie, is the same outfit he is seen wearing in the first season finale (Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Beginning of the End (2014)) of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013), right down to the sunglasses and beanie.

Kevin Feige described the film as "a 1970s political thriller masquerading as a big superhero movie."

Anthony Mackie likes to say 'cut the check!' whenever something had gone right or a scene had been completed. The phrase caught on during filming, and before long everyone on-set was saying it. However, according to the directors, he overdid it so many times, that it started to lose effect after a while.

(at around 1h 2 mins) When Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow encounter Zola's supercomputer, it identifies Natasha as being born in 1984, the same year as Scarlett Johansson.

Kevin Feige selected Joe Russo and Anthony Russo to direct the film, on the basis of their two back-to-back episodes of Community (2009), that they've directed, with which Feige was impressed: Community: A Fistful of Paintballs (2011) and Community: For a Few Paintballs More (2011).

The mask of Winter Soldier is exactly opposite to the mask of Captain America, just like Cap's image. Winter Soldier's mask covers his lower face and reveals his eyes, where Cap's cover his eyes and reveals his lower face.

UFC Welterweight champion Georges St-Pierre plays an Algerian mercenary in the film. For the filmmakers, landing the popular MMA fighter for the role, was a stroke of luck and good timing, but it was equally a stroke of luck for St. Pierre, who was excited to get his first chance at being in a big action movie.

The freighter Batroc hijacks in the beginning is named the "Lemurian Star". This is a reference to Lemuria, the sunken continent that was the home of the Deviants, a race of superhumans created by Jack Kirby.

Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon got double exposure in 2014. First, he is included as a major character in this film, and in Captain America: Civil War (2016). Secondly, in the comics, with Steve Rogers having aged rapidly, Wilson has been called upon to replace him as the new Captain America.

Anthony Mackie described the film as "The Avengers (2012): Part 1.5".

(at around 1h 30 mins) The photo of Alexander Pierce from 1992 is a still image from the film Sneakers (1992).

(at around 2 mins) Cap's list of the things he missed, includes the Moon Landing. In the Marvel storyline "House of M" (an alternate reality, where Magneto and mutants rule the Earth) Cap was the first man on the moon.

Prior to the release of this film, there was some doubt that this sequel would have much appeal outside of the United States considering the character's obvious American imagery. However, the film proved to be a major international success upon release.

(at around 2 mins) When Rogers talks for the first time with Wilson, he mentions some differences between his times, and modern times. He comments "No polio is great". It's a nod to Captain America (1990), where Steve Rogers (Matt Salinger) was sick with polio before undergoing the experiment to be Captain America.

(at around 1h 15 mins) While Rogers and Romanov are questioning Agent Sitwell about Zola's algorithm, Sitwell lists people that are being tracked. He mentions Stephen Strange. He is the main character in Doctor Strange (2016), played by Benedict Cumberbatch.

Although Captain America never holds or uses a gun in this film, he is still sometimes seen wearing holstered pistol on his belt.

(at around 1h 2 mins) In Dr. Zola's lair, Black Widow says "Shall we play a game?" This was a line taken from WarGames (1983), which was a movie about war simulation programs run by a national defense computer, which almost triggers a nuclear war.

The film takes place two years after The Avengers (2012).

In his first comic incarnation, Falcon had the superpower to communicate with birds telepathically. The film version, much like the Marvel Ultimate comics version, does not give Falcon any superpowers.

(at around 1h) When Captain America and Black Widow enter the HYDRA base, there can be seen the photographs of the three S.H.I.E.L.D. founders. In these three appear Tommy Lee Jones, Hayley Atwell, and Dominic Cooper, who starred in the previous film Captain America: The First Avenger (2011).

At one point, the writers had proposed sparing Arnim Zola, by revealing that the computer, in which he housed his memory, could transform into a mobile robotic body. Marvel vetoed the idea, on the grounds that it was too silly.

Although playing a French/Algerian character, Georges St-Pierre speaks his lines in his native French-Canadian accent.

Chapter Three of Phase Two in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

It marks the fifth appearance of Maximiliano Hernández as Jasper Sitwell after Thor (2011) Marvel One-Shot: The Consultant (2011) The Avengers (2012) Marvel One-Shot: Item 47 (2012) and multiple episodes of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013).

Anthony Mackie did the film so that his son and other black children can see that there are superheroes who look like them.

The score from Captain America: The First Avenger (2011) is heard at the beginning, when Steve Rogers and Sam Wilson are jogging in Washington, D.C.

The name "exo-7" of the prototype wings used by Sam Wilson a.k.a. Falcon, is a pun on French pronunciation "exocet," which is the name of a type of flying fish that has shiny "wings."

Robert Redford was cast, in part, as an homage to his roles in 1970s thrillers, like Three Days of the Condor (1975).

Georges St-Pierre, who plays Batroc the Leaper, is the former UFC Welterweight Champion (2008-2013), having vacated his title in December 2013.

When Nick Fury is racing through the busy streets, after his SUV has been attacked, there are two clips where he drives by the street (E 9th) and intersection (E 9th and Euclid) where the street battle scenes from The Avengers (2012) were shot. There is also a very short clip of him driving down the street where those scenes were shot. Several of the buildings from The Avengers (2012) can be seen. Also, the rotunda-styled bank, where Bucky goes for his treatments, is the same building from The Avengers (2012), of which Captain America was blown out, when the alien grenade went off.

This marks the first Marvel Cinematic Universe film in which vehicles produced by an American car maker, Chevrolet, are featured as part of a product-placement deal. Chevy vehicles prominently featured in the movie include a pre-production 2014 Corvette Stingray, driven by Natasha in an early scene; a Tahoe SUV (featuring a substantial number of S.H.I.E.L.D. "upgrades," including bulletproof glass and the ability to drive itself) driven by Nick Fury during an extended chase sequence; a Silverado pickup truck driven by Steve; and an Impala driven by Sam. Other Chevy vehicles are plainly visible in some shots, including several of its limited-production Volt hybrid vehicle.

The Russos cited the movies Klute (1971), The Parallax View (1974), Three Days of the Condor (1975), All the President's Men (1976), The French Connection (1971), and To Live and Die in L.A. (1985) as inspiration for making this film..

Before settling on a darker military outfit, several of the proposed Falcon costumes featured a more armored look, complete with a helmet. At least one of the suits also retained Falcon's red and white color scheme from the comics, as well the golden forehead crest he wears on his mask.

Anna Kendrick, Felicity Jones, Imogen Poots, Teresa Palmer, Alison Brie, Emilia Clarke, Mary Elizabeth Winstead, Elizabeth Olsen, and Jessica Brown Findlay were considered to play Sharon Carter. Although the role ultimately went to Emily VanCamp, Olsen appears as Wanda Maximoff a.k.a. Scarlet Witch in a mid-credits scene.

Between The Avengers (2012) and this film, Cap's shield is no longer magnetic with additional electronics. This reflects the comic books, where Cap found that the modifications affected the delicate balance of the shield, and had them removed.

In the comics, Steve Rogers often struggled financially, taking odd jobs such as comic book illustrator, teacher, etc. However, the Ultimates version, states he is financially secure, since he was given sixty years of back pay by the Army, for his time in suspended animation. The film version shows he remains employed, as a government Agent, like the 60s-70s comic version.

Though Captain America: Civil War (2016) is the sequel to The Winter Soldier, a few parts of The Winter Soldier are similar to the Civil War comic book, such as Captain America becoming a fugitive, and the scene of him jumping out of the window of S.H.I.E.L.D. headquarters, also happen in the comic, but under different circumstances.

The "winter soldier" title is assumed to refer to either Bucky's nickname, the Cold War, or how he was kept in a cold-based suspended animation between missions. But, from the commentary, it actually refers to an eighteenth century quote from Thomas Paine: "THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he (the winter soldier) that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman." Therefore, the titular "winter soldier" is Cap, not Bucky.

Reunites Robert Redford with Scarlett Johansson after The Horse Whisperer (1998).

The dialogue between Pierce and Natasha, about potentially leaking her past, alongside the entire S.H.I.E.L.D. database, ran longer, with a mention that Pierce isn't doing anything to stop it, because HYDRA's existence being known to the public won't matter, once the Helicarriers are fully operational.

The Russo brothers considered using the "Captain America" March for when Steve Rogers steals his old Captain America costume, from the Smithsonian, for the final battle against HYDRA, but ultimately decided it wasn't necessary, since this film is different in tone than Captain America: The First Avenger (2011).

(at around 1h 15 mins) Scarlett Johansson and Chris Evans were in The Perfect Score (2004). In that movie, they, and a group of high school students, plot to steal the answers to the S.A.T. In Captain America: Winter Soldier (2014), when Black Widow and Captain America are interrogating Sitwell, he makes reference to "Perfect Score", when he says that S.H.I.E.L.D. knows everything about them, even their S.A.T. scores.

Was delivered to UK theaters under the codename "Freezer Burn".

Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Kevin Durand, and Josh Holloway screen-tested for the role of Brock Rumlow a.k.a. Crossbones.

(at around 2 mins) There are four Korean terms in the film, which are only shown in Korean theaters. In one scene, Captain America writes down keywords from different cultures, to help him adjust to the modern lifestyle. They are Ji Sung Park, Korean film Oldboy (2003), and two remaining keywords that are kept secret.

(at around 57 mins) When Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanov are talking in the stolen truck, Natasha asks where Captain America learned to steal a car. In Captain America (1990), he steals multiple vehicles from American citizens.

Michael B. Jordan read for the role of Falcon.

Near the beginning of the film, in an aerial shot of Washington, D.C., the camera lingers on a shot centered on the Watergate Complex, where President Richard Nixon's Committee to Re-elect the President (the Plumbers) broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters, sparking the Watergate Scandal, which led to the revelation Nixon had been using the intelligence agencies to gain political power. Robert Redford played Bob Woodward in the famous Watergate Scandal movie All the President's Men (1976).

(at around 41 mins) Pierce tells Cap that his father fought for the 101st. This is an homage to the war drama Band of Brothers (2001), centering on the Easy Company, a.k.a. the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment/101st Airborne Division. That show featured X-Men: First Class (2011) cast members James McAvoy and Michael Fassbender. It also is a reference to Nick Fury's own Marvel Comics series, in which Nick Fury, Dum-Dum, and other members of his squad, that we saw in action in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011). They were all members of "The Howling Commandos" in that comic series.

In the film, Natasha Romanov a.k.a. Black Widow was 29 years old, one year older than Steve Rogers a.k.a. Captain America, who was only 28 years old (biologically). In real-life, Scarlett Johansson is three years younger than Chris Evans.

The second time Henry Jackman replaced Alan Silvestri as the music composer for the film. The first was being G.I. Joe: Retaliation (2013)

(at around 34 mins) When Steve sneaks into his apartment through the window, the book Night Stalkers by Mike Durant can be seen at the bottom of the horizontal stack of books. Durant served in the Army as a Chief Warrant Officer 4, and was taken prison in Somalia during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993. He was released after spending eleven days in captivity. Black Hawk Down (2001) portrays the events of the battle, and Durant's capture.

(at around 13 mins) The coordinates of the Triskelion (when corrected from the impossible south longitude to west longitude) are 38N 53'33.78" 77W 3' 38.91. This puts it on Theodore Roosevelt Island, in the Potomac River, Washington, D.C., with the shown view of the Abraham Lincoln Memorial to its southeast.

In the mall scene with Natasha Romanov, Steve Rogers is seen wearing a baseball cap that reads 'World War II veteran", which is appropriate, considering that Steve Rogers (Captain America) is a World War II vet.

Captain America's motorcycle featured in the film is a Harley-Davidson Street 750.

In the opening sequence on the Lumerian Star, Captain America's shield has pale colors of red and blue. The next time you see Captain America with his shield after the mission on the ship, he has his shield with the original solid red and blue colors. There is no explanation of what happened to the first shield, as it is never seen again after the mission on the ship. It is assumed that it was simply painted muted colors for a camouflage effect, and then repainted to its original colors after the night mission.

Chris McKenna, who worked with the Russo brothers on Community (2009), did some script polishing during production.

Agent Sitwell was a zombie in the comics.

One of the motorcycles used during filming (during the HYDRA uprising and prison break), is a Harley-Davidson Street 750. It's their newest bike model in thirteen years.

Steve Roger's catch up list includes Star Wars and Star Trek. In this film, Samuel L. Jackson plays Nick Fury and in Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Zoe Saldana plays Gamora (the Guardians and Captain America exist in the same universe). Jackson played Mace Windu in the Star Wars movies, and Saldana played Nyota Uhura in Star Trek (2009).

Samuel L. Jackson and Anthony Mackie previously worked together in Freedomland (2006).

F. Gary Gray and George Nolfi were considered to direct the film. F. Gary Gray previously directed Samuel L. Jackson in The Negotiator (1998), while George Nolfi previously directed Anthony Mackie in The Adjustment Bureau (2011).

Emily VanCamp's former Everwood (2002) co-star Chris Pratt was cast as Peter Quill in the film Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), also based on a Marvel comic book in the same year.

In this movie, Robert Redford plays Alexander Pierce, while Sir Ben Kingsley plays Trevor Slattery in Iron Man 3 (2013). Both worked together in Sneakers (1992), with Kingsley playing the villain, and Redford the main protagonist. Now, both Academy Award winning actors have been in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

During the Nick Fury road chase, the Halle Building can be seen multiple times in the background. This building also served as the exterior of the Winfred-Louder store, on The Drew Carey Show (1995).

This film features one of four "Doctor Who" stars, to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Toby Jones (who also previously appeared in Captain America: The First Avenger (2011)) appeared in the British series, as well as Karen Gillan (Guardians of the Galaxy (2014)), Peter Serafinowicz (Guardians of the Galaxy), and Christopher Eccleston (Thor: The Dark World (2013)).

On Nick Fury's "gravestone" at the end of the movie, the epitaph mentions Ezekiel 25:17, which was the same Bible verse that the same Samuel L. Jackson's character famously referenced in "Pulp Fiction".

Ed Brubaker: (at around 1h 27 mins) A scientist at the birth of the Winter Soldier, is played by the author of the Winter Soldier comic book.

Joss Whedon: (at around 18 mins) Director of the team-up movies, as the man wearing a Captain America t-shirt, and going down the escalator with a little boy at the Smithsonian.

Stan Lee: (at around 1h 30 mins) As a security guard at the Smithsonian, who notices the original Captain America costume is missing and says "I am so fired".

Gary Sinise: (at around 18 mins) The info voice narrating the history of the Howling Commandos in the museum.

Garry Shandling: reprising his role as Senator Stern from Iron Man 2 (2010).

Christopher Markus, Stephen McFeely: The film's writers appear as the two S.H.I.E.L.D. interrogators.

Danny Pudi: (at around 1h 35 mins) As the Com Tech operator, who lets Captain America into the communications room.

Steven Culp: (at around 2h) The Congressman who angrily interrogates Black Widow at the hearing, is better known for playing the antagonistic Speaker of the House in The West Wing (1999).

D.C. Pierson: (at around 55 mins) The big bearded man in the Apple Store at the mall with Natasha and Steve hiding in plain sight while Brock's team pursuing them.

Joe Russo: (at around 1h 26 mins) The doctor treating Natasha, when she and Steve were brought in by Maria to the safe-house.

(at around 2h) Nick Fury's grave bears the epitaph: "The path of the righteous man. Ezekiel 25:17." This is a favorite line of Jules Winnifield (Samuel L. Jackson) in Pulp Fiction (1994).

(at around 33 mins) The laser cutter that Fury uses to escape from his ruined SUV into the sewer, has the same blue beam as the one used to access the plane buried in the ice in the first film. The episode of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013), that aired directly after the film's release (Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Providence (2014)) revealed that they were invented by Fitz.

Sebastian Stan is contracted for nine films, but according to him, when production for this film began, he was not told anything of which films he will be incorporated. Stan only realized he was playing the title role of Winter Soldier, when the title was formally revealed in San Diego Comic Con 2013.

(at around 2h) At the end of the movie, Brock Rumlow (Frank Grillo) can be seen burned, but alive, being healed by some doctors while he is moved in an ambulance. In the comics, Crossbones (Rumlow's supervillain moniker) had his face severely burned, necessitating that he wear a mask.

First film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe to reveal Nick Fury's blind eye.

(at around 1h 50 mins) The list of targets selected by the Helicarriers include: The Baxter building (home and headquarters of the superhero team the Fantastic Four), Tony Stark, and President Matthew Ellis from Iron Man 3 (2013).

The two subjects in the HYDRA base in the mid-credit scene are identified as the mutants Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver.

The Winter Soldier (Bucky Barnes) is able to match Captain America (Steve Rogers) move by move, even to the point of catching Rogers' shield. This foreshadows Barnes taking over as Captain America (which happened in the comics).

(at around 2h 5 mins) Kate/Agent 13 (played by Emily VanCamp) is later referred to by her real name Sharon Carter. Many fans would have put it together, when she was called Agent 13, and others, when she is called Sharon, but this is Sharon Carter, Peggy's younger sister in the comics (they later changed it to her niece, when they made continuity changes, but the relationship in the movie is not established) and major love interest for Captain America. What, if anything, this will mean for future movies remains to be seen. The cover name "Kate" is from S.H.I.E.L.D. Agent Kate Neville.

Comic book writer Ed Brubaker was both pleased, and surprised at the adaptation of the Winter Soldier storyline, his work on the title - including the return of Bucky Barnes as the Winter Soldier: "I got to go out to Marvel Studios and read one of the later drafts of the script. I went out to dinner with directors Joe and Anthony Russo, and talked about the project, and gave them feedback on what I liked, or didn't like, or what parts didn't work. I mean, the script I read was fantastic. The tone of it, and the Bucky stuff is so perfect, and the way I'd want it to be, I was so thrilled to see that."

Joss Whedon directed the mid-credits scene with Baron Strucker, Quicksilver, and Scarlet Witch, that sets up Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).

Baron von Strucker experiments on twins with superpowers. In the comics, Strucker actually subjected his own twins Andrea and Andreas to a treatment which gave them superpowers.

One of the first-revealed deleted scenes was a short, painful conversation between Natasha and Fury about his decision not to bring her in on his survival plan. Scarlett Johansson suggested it be cut, because it disrupted the momentum of the film, and the basic gist of the scene is still conveyed, without being needed to spell it out. Albeit, this scene also introduced the photo-veil, the high tech mask that allows Natasha to impersonate the female councilwoman and enter the Triskelion.

According to Kevin Feige, every Marvel Cinematic Universe Phase 2 movie has an homage to Star Wars, in the form of a character losing an arm. -In Iron Man 3 (2013), Aldrich Killian loses an arm during the battle with Tony Stark. -In Thor: The Dark World (2013), Loki cuts off Thor's arm on Svartalfheim. -In Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Bucky lost his arm during his fall from the train. In Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Gamora cuts off Groot's arm during the group's initial scuffle on Xandar. -In Captain America: Civil War (2016), Iron Man shoots off Bucky Barnes's arm in the old HYDRA bunker.

(at around 2h) Maria Hill's last scene is of her joining Stark Industries. In the comics, she served under Tony Stark, but it was the other way around, as he ended up joining S.H.I.E.L.D.

A deleted scene explains why Captain America had to borrow his old uniform from the museum. He let the S.T.R.I.K.E. team track his new uniform to a basketball court, while he went back to the hospital in regular clothes.

This is the first film involving Captain America, in which Steve Rogers never uses, or even touches, a firearm of any kind.

(at around 1h 11 mins) Steve Rogers tells Natasha Romanov that he is "always honest". He takes this to an extreme when addressing S.H.I.E.L.D. about the HYDRA takeover (at around 1h 35 mins). Although everyone believed that Nick Fury had been killed, Steve only states that Alexander Pierce had Fury "shot", since Steve knew that Fury was still alive.

The film's plot is based on the storylines "The Winter Soldier" (Captain America's new threat) and "The Ultimates" (S.H.I.E.L.D. is taken over by HYDRA). And long before "The Ultimates", " Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.".

The Winter Soldier only lands a total of nine hits in the entire film with his metal arm: one punch on Cap in the street fight, one backhand on the doctor fixing his arm, and seven hits on Cap in the final fight, all of which are hits Cap let him land. All of his other strikes, are either blocked, or with his non-metal arm. Like Cap, he uses his metal arm like a shield, mainly to block.

Before his death in The Avengers (2012), and subsequent resurrection in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013), Marvel considered revealing Phil Coulson as a HYDRA Agent. He would have played the role that Sitwell does in the finished film.

Aaron Taylor-Johnson and Elizabeth Olsen appear as Quicksilver and The Scarlet Witch, respectively, in a mid-credits scene, which sets the stage for Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).

Robert Redford wanted to be in this movie, so that he could play a villain, since he almost never gets cast as one. He also reportedly wanted to experience the new style of film-making that utilized high technology to bring its characters to life.

The filmmakers originally intended that Dr. Arnim Zola transfer his consciousness into a robot, and make an escape. This was scrapped, by Marvel executives, for being too silly.

In the scene where Nick Fury comes and reveals he is alive to Alexander Pierce, while Black Widow is releasing all the secrets to the Internet, you can see a faint outline of the game Galaga, a reference to The Avengers (2012).

In the comics, the Winter Soldier trained Natasha Romanov, and the two eventually were in a romantic relationship.

(at around 1h 15 mins) When Jasper Sitwell is being interrogated, he tells Captain America and Black Widow, that a lot of humans will be killed by the Helicarriers, which attended Project Insight. Among those names, he mentioned Dr. Stephen Strange and Dr. Bruce Banner. Bruce Banner is better known as The Incredible Hulk, whereas Dr. Strange is the protagonist in Doctor Strange (2016). They are the main characters of "The Defenders" in the comic books.

(at around 33 mins) When Kate/Agent 13 finishes her phone call and makes small talk with Steve Rogers (in their mutual hallway), she says about the call, "My aunt's kind of an insomniac". Agent 13's name is actually Sharon Carter, and her aunt is Steve's former love interest Peggy Carter.

(at around 2h) The document in Nick's box, is a Thai Working Permit.

The Winter Soldier does not appear until 32 minutes into the movie.

Both this movie and its predecessor, Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), involve Captain America falling into a water body in the end: The Arctic in The First Avenger (2011) and the Potomac River in The Winter Soldier (2014).

In the commentary, the filmmakers say the mask used by Natasha Romanov, is based on the mask used by the Red Skull in the first film, thus showing another link between HYDRA and S.H.I.E.L.D.

During the scene where Steven and Natalia are speaking to Arnim Zola in his computer form, Zola mentions that Hydra changes the present when the need suits them. During this speech the image of the Winter Soldier can be seen aiming an assault rifle right before the image of a newspaper bearing the headline that Howard and Maria Stark died in a car accident. It was revealed in Captain America: Civil War that the Winter Soldier was responsible for the deaths of Howard and Maria Stark.

Natasha Romanov disguised herself as Councilwoman Hawley, by wearing a holographic mask of her. The holographic masks were used in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013) by Agent 33/Kara to impersonate Agent May (among others).

Each Marvel superhero movie has a main theme: -Iron Man (2008) and sequels - Weaponry and technology. -The Incredible Hulk (2008) - Mutation and nuclear power. -Captain America: The First Avenger (2011) and sequels - Experimentation and espionage. -Thor (2011) and sequels - Mythology and religion. -Guardians of the Galaxy (2014) - Extra-terrestrial life and cosmic beings. -Ant-Man (2015) - Telepathy and control of animals. -Doctor Strange (2016) - Magic and witchcraft. -The Avengers (2012) - Alien Invasion. -Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) - Artificial Intelligence.

In the comics, Baron Strucker is the father of super villains Andrea and Andreas von Strucker, who appear as unrelated characters in The Gifted (2017).